UNIT6 答案

UNIT 6 Making of a surgeon

一位著名的外科医生以自己的亲身经历来谈自信的重要性。

外科医师的成功之道诺兰医生

一位医生怎样辨认自己终于成了一名“外科医师”的那一时刻呢?在我任住院主任医师的那一年快要结束的时候,我曾不止一次地问过自己这个问题。

我最后认定,问题的答案在于“自信”二字。当你能够对自己说:“任何外科病人我都能胜任进行治疗,我的治疗跟其他外科医生一样高明,甚至比任何外科医生都更为高明”——那时,而且只有到了那时,你才真正成了一名外科医师。当时我正接近那个时刻。

就以我们几乎每晚都会碰到的急诊情况为例吧。在那一年的最初几个月,我一直害怕听到电话铃响。我知道电话铃声意味着又要作出一个生死攸关的决定。事情往往是这样:在我告诉沃尔特或拉里对于某一特殊情况应如何处理之后,我就很难再重新入睡了。我会重温那位急诊病人的整个病情,常常会怀疑自己是否作出了不妥的决定。不止一次,在我躺了一个小时还睡不着之后,我会在凌晨两三点钟从床上跳起来,穿好衣服,驾车去医院亲自探视病人。唯有这样我才能找到安心休息所需要的内心平静。

然而,在我做住院医生的最后一个月,睡眠已不再是个问题了。在有些情况下我仍然不能确定自己的决定是否正确,但我已学会把这看做一个外科医师经常会遇到的问题,一个永远也不能完全解决的问题——我已能适应它了。所以,我一旦经过深思熟虑作出某个决定,就不再去多想它了。多想也不会有什么帮助,而且我知道,凭我的知识和经验,我作出的任何决定肯定都是稳妥的。这是一种令人愉快的感觉。

在手术室里我也同样充满信心。我知道自己的知识、技术和经验足以对付我在开业行医中将会碰到的任何外科病例。当我切开病人的腹部或胸腔时,我不再紧张得瑟瑟发抖了。我知道,即使碰上事先无法预见其问题所在的病例,我也能处置我发现的任何情况。我战战兢兢地治疗过交在我手上的腹部刺伤、肺部穿孔以及复合性骨折等病例。这类外科手术我已经战战兢兢地干了五年。我再也不必担惊受怕了。

而且,我也不再怕犯错误了。我知道在我出去开业行医时,说不定什么时候我就会不可避免地出差错;我会给不需要手术治疗的病人开刀,也可能会把需要动手术的病人忽略过去。五年前——甚至一年前——如果我不得不为一次判断上的失误负全部责任的话,我是没法容忍自己的。现在我能了。我仍然害怕犯错误——愿意竭尽全力避免出错——但我知道这是外科医师生活的一部分。我之所以能够平静地接受这一事实,是因为我知道:如果我不能避免出差错,那么换了任何别的外科医生很可能也不能避免。

这些话听上去很自负,而且我以为这的确是自负——但外科医师就是需要这种自负。当他受到行医中必定会遇到的重重疑虑的煎熬时,他需要“自负”来支撑自己度过这些难受的时刻。他必须觉得,他与世上任何一位外科医生相比都毫不逊色,甚至还技高一筹。你管这叫自负也好,叫自信也罢;不管你叫它什么,反正我是有了。

Exercises

Comprehension of the text

2

1.b

2.d

3.c

4.d

5.c

6.a

7.b

8.a

3 (Omitted)

Vocabulary

4

1. one

2. one

3. ones, /

4. one

5. that

6. one

7. /

8. ones

代词one的复数形式为ones,前面可用the, this/that, these/those和which等修饰。One或ones不跟在own或所有格后面。

5

1. on several occasions

2. resolve

3. encounter

4. sole

5. drawing to a close

6. anticipated

7. dwelt on

8. critical

9. handling

10. sound

11. sat on

12. bothered

6

1. avoid

2. open up

3. relaxed

5. concluded

6. live with

7. case

8. critical

9. particular

10. operated on

11. was sweating

12. constant

13. in advance

14. in practice

7

1. I was confident that I would win the race. (Or: I was confident of winning the race. )

2. With determination and hard work, you are bound to succeed event ually.

3. The burglar walked very fast in order to avoid being seen by the p oliceman behind.

4. Driving a car after drinking alcohol will inevitably lead to an accide nt or arrest by the police.

5. You must take full responsibility for losing the money.

6. Success at such an early age made the young businessman quite a c onceited fellow. (Or: Because he was a huge success at such an early age, the businessman was quite conceited.)

Word Building

8

absence efficiency independence(cy)

silence confidence patience

distance competence(cy) frequency

presence importance permanence

constancy emergency evidence

1. efficiency

2. emergency

3. absence

4. confidence

5. frequency

6. distance

7. presence

8. independence

9

1. have enriched

2. had enjoyed

3. ensured

4. endeared

5. enabled

7. enlarge

8. have been embodied

9. empower

10. entitle

Structure

10

1. Once a good beginning is made

2. Once you understand these rules

3. Once he makes a promise

4. Once (they are) put down in black and white

5. Once you get into the habit of smoking

6. Once she began to write in English

11

1. I had a lot of trouble getting the car started this morning.

2. You won’t have much difficulty getting to know people in Italy.

3. The conceited young man said he had no difficulty whatsoever readi ng technical drawings.

4. To the teacher’s surprise, most of the students in his class had little difficulty working out the hard maths problems.

5. Did you have any trouble finding the butterfly specimen Prof. Nolen wanted?

6. The shepherds had a great deal of trouble driving the sheep to a pl ace of safety in the snowstorm.

12

1. Einstein is so famous that there is no one who doesn’t know him.

2. There is almost nothing t hat his dog won’t eat.

3. There is no one who doesn’t make any mistakes in his lifetime.

4. There is no goal that you cannot obtain so long as you have an hon est attitude and a strong will.

5. There is nobody here who won’t lend you a hel ping hand when you find yourself in difficulty.

6. John is called Mr. Fix It because there is almost nothing that he ca nnot fix.

Close13

(A)

(1)surgical (2)confident (3)sound (4)case

(5)dwell on (6)emergency (7)sweat (8)competent

(9)bound (10)or another (11)relax (12)handle

(B)

1. (1)from (2)examined (3)nothing (4)trouble

(5)much (6)same (7)ago (8)advice

(9)you (10)pay (11)worry (12)followed

(13)again (14)quite (15)that (16)tailor

2. (1)how (2)answer (3)cut (4)surgeon

(5)had (6)over (7)only (8)found

(9)by (10)got (11)then (12)saying (13)around

Translation

14

1. As long as you keep on trying, you will be able to resolve this diffic ult problem sooner or later.

2. We anticipate encountering/that we will encounter resistance to our plan/ our plan will meet with resistance.

3. Jim’s friends said that the noise pollution in their city was terrible, but they had to live with it.

4. At first Tom thought that with his knowledge, skill and experience h

e was bound to find a satisfactory job.

5. It would be wise (advisable) to handle this delicate problem with cal mness and patience.

6. Dick thought that if he wasn’t able to take the machine apart, chan ces were that no other worker in the plant could, either.

7. Do you think bus drivers should take full responsibility for the pass engers’ safety?

8. You needn’t dwell on your mistakes in judgment any more. What’s important is to try your best to avoid repeating them.

READING ACTIVETY

Exercise A

1.d

2.c

3.c

4.b

5.d

6.a

7.c

Exercise B

1. 我倒认为,凡是当医生的全都倒了霉。凡是学医的都该去查一下脑子是否正常。

2.正如我的一个朋友所说----即便是医生也还有几个朋友----当医生就是能长阅历。

3.我在这讨厌的凌晨时刻,摸黑急速驶过利埃大桥,泥浆在车窗上沙沙溅响,发热器先是吹热风,然后又吹冷风;那张对畸形骆驼才适合的车座,梗得我的脊背又酸又痛;路边空荡荡的加油站四周雾气缭绕----这时候,我并不觉得自己像个救护天使。

4.偶尔人们真的病了,偶尔你确能帮上忙,偶尔凌晨两点光景,有人会拿给你一杯水和一块硬邦邦的糕饼----这么一来,你就会担心自己是否样样事情都做周全了。

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