Passage One： 文学评析 ---- 野性的呼唤
A gripping, fast-paced tale of adventure, The Call of the Wild focuses on Buck, a sheepdog stolen from a California farm and transported to the arctic. Buck’s struggle to survive on the arctic trail demonstrates the uncertain nature of life in the wild. Although it is an engaging animal story, the reader cannot help but draw parallels between Buck’s experience and that of humans. The book suggests that environment shapes character, and emphasizes that primitive character—often hidden beneath a layer of civilization—is never lost to the individual. Providing a fascinating glimpse of a way of life that has almost disappeared, the novel suggests that creatures survive best when they adapt to the natural world, rather than trying to impose changes on their environment. The story begins in 1897, at the start of the Gold Rush. The discovery of gold in the Klondike—a region in northwestern Canada—prompted thousands of gold seekers to head for the far north, all of them desperately in need of dogs to pull sleds across the harsh arctic trails. Buck, a large dog who has enjoyed a leisurely life on a California farm, is stolen and shipped to the Yukon. Buck learns to survive in this cruel environment; he begins to discover the primitive knowledge of his ancestors, and in time he responds to the call of the wild. Because the book focuses upon Buck’s experience, the human characters are of secondary importance. Buck is a magnificent dog, part shepherd and part St. Bernard. His superior strength enables him to adapt readily to the northern climate and the harsh demands of his labors. But he possesses one additional quality—imagination. Buck fights with his head as well as his strength. Adaptability is a dominant theme in this novel. In order to survive in the arctic, Buck must learn “the law of club and fang(牙齿)”. Buck is first taught this law by the club wielding sled drivers, who show him that the strongest individuals are the ones who rule. Buck also learns this primitive law from the other team dogs, such as Dave, Solleks, and the vicious team leader, Spitz. From them, Buck learns that he must either bite or be bitten, master or be mastered.
1. About this novel, which of the following statement is NOT true? A) The novel focused upon the experiences of a dog named Buck. B) The main theme was to tell its readers the life in the arctic wild. C) The book stressed the influences of environment on character. D) Creatures have to adapt to the changes on environment to survive.
2. We can draw from the passage that the “primitive character” within Buck refers to?______. A) Buck’s adaptability to the cruel wild life B) the learning of the law of club and fang C) Buck’s ability to fight with head and claw D) becoming the strongest individual to rule
3. The story was set primarily in?______. A) Klondike in Canada B) a farm in Cal
ifornia C) the Yukon D) the wild in California
4. Buck learned to survive in the arctic by _______.A) its primitive character B) becoming the strongestC) the law of club and fang D) adapt itself to the cold arctic
5. According to the passage, which of the following statement is true?A) The Call of the Wild is about the relationship between men and dogs in the arctic.B) The Call of the Wild is a story about the wild west during the Gold Rush.C) Buck learned “the law of club and fang” by defeating its enemies.D) Buck managed to survive and became a leader.
Key: B? A? A? B?B
Passage Two： 社会文化 ---- 家庭中孩子的地位变化
The ordinary family in colonial North America was primarily concerned with sheer physical survival and beyond that, is own economic prosperity. Thus, children were valued in terms of their productivity, and they assumed the role of producer quite early. Until they fulfilled this role, their position in the structure of the family was one of subordination and their psychological needs and capacities received little consideration. As the society became more complex, the status of children in the family and in the society became more important. In the complex, technological society that the United States has become, each member must fulfill a number of personal and occupational roles and be in constant contact with a great many other members. Consequently, viewing children as potentially acceptable and necessarily multifaceted members of society means that they are regarded more as people in their own right than as utilitarian organisms. This acceptance of children as equal participants in the contemporary family is reflected in the variety of statutes protecting the rights of children and in the social and public welfare programs devoted exclusively to their well-being. This new view of children and the increasing contact between the members of society has also resulted in a surge of interest in child-rearing techniques. People today spend a considerable portion of their time conferring on the proper way to bring up children. It is now possible to influence the details of the socialization of another person’s child by spreading the gospel of current and fashionable theories and methods of child rearing. The socialization of the contemporary child in the United States is a two-way transaction between parent and child rather than a one-way, parent-to-child training program. As a consequence, socializing children and living with them over a long period time is for parents a mixture of pleasure, satisfaction, and problems.1. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage? A) The Place of Children in United States Society B) The Children of Colonial North American C) The Development of Cultural Values D) The Child as a Utilitarian Organism
2. According to the author, children in colonial North America were mainly valued for their ____
. A) academic achievements B) survival instincts C) physical characteristics D) productive roles
3. What can be inferred about formal schooling in colonial North America? A) It was generally required by law. B) It was considered relatively unimportant. C) It was improperly administered. D) It was highly disciplined.
4. Which of the following is a possible cause of changes in the role of the child in the United States? A) An increase in technology. B) The growing complexity of the child’s psychological needs. C) A decrease in the child’s intellectual capacities. D) The growing number of single parent families.
5. According to the passage, parents have become increasingly interested in ______. A) their children’s future occupations B) having smaller families C) adoption programs for childless couples D) child-rearing techniques
Key: A? D? B? A? D
Passage Three: 科技 ---- 互联网
Nearly a year after Google's IPO marked the start of a new phase in Web search competition, the upstart is making industry giants Microsoft's MSN and Yahoo! look like also-rans. Google's share of U.S. searches hit 52% in June, up from 45% a year ago, according to Web analytics firm WebSideStory Inc. By contrast, Yahoo's and MSN's share slipped to 25% and 10% respectively. Says Mark S. Mahaney, an analyst at Smith Barney Citigroup : "People haven't been given a good reason to switch from Google."
Does that really matter? The two businesses still attract more total visitors, thanks to their broad offerings of games, music, personals, and much more. Ever-profitable Microsoft Corp. has oodles of cash to lavish on MSN, while Yahoo! Inc. delivered record revenues of $1.2 billion in the first quarter. That's providing the resources to fund new forays into easier-to-use sites and more advanced search technologies.
Still, MSN's and Yahoo's search problems could come back to haunt them. Many analysts see search as a crucial entrée for everything else online, where consumers go to begin their travels. Assuming that continues to be the case, MSN's and Yahoo's eroding search shares could slow their growth rate in the future. Research shows that Web surfers increasingly use search as a means to navigate the Web, often in lieu of the URL box -- the space in a browser where users type in a Web address. "From online dating to travel to banking, we see that search is often a starting point for people," says Bonny Brown, director of research at Keynote Systems Inc., which measures the performance of Web sites.
Google's search lead, moreover, looks pretty unassailable, at least for now. Despite many studies indicating the near-parity of rival search technologies, changing searchers' habits is more difficult today than in the Web's early days, when surfers hopped from Yahoo to Excite to AltaVista and back. One familiar yet persistent reason for this loyalty is Google's plain home page, which include
s just 13 links or so -- less than a tenth of the number at MSN and Yahoo. "People are on a mission when they come to a search site," says Jared M. Spool, founding principal at researcher User Interface Engineering. "The last thing they want to know is what's happening with Tom Cruise."
What does Mark S. Mahaney mean when he says, "People haven't been given a good reason to switch from Google."
MSN and Yahoo failed to explain the reasons for their slip of shares.
People would choose Google because its share of U.S. searches rises.
Surfers are satisfied with the service of Google so far, so they just keep using it.
Google did best in persuading user to adopt their search engine.
2. Of the following statements, which may account for Google’s success, at least for now?
A. Google’s home page is far more appealing than the other two.
B. Google can more directly meet the demands of the users.
C. Google has invested far more funds in its search.
D. Google tries to provide everything online for the users.
3. What does the word “unassailable ”(Para. 4 L1) probably mean?
A. Convincing B. Unbelievable C. Frightening D. Undeniable
4. Is it possible that MSN and Yahoo will change their unfavorable situation in the competition in the near future?
A. Probably yes. Because their search technologies are more advanced.
B. Of course they can. Because they have abundant financial resources.
C. Probably no. Because they refuse to accept the search as the starting point of everything else online.
D. Probably no. Because the users’ habits are not so easy to change than in the early days.
5. What can we infer from those words of Jared M. Spool "The last thing they want to know is what's happening with Tom Cruise" (Para4, L7-8)
A. Tom Cruise is not so popular among those web users.
B. Some searches tend to put too much news about Tom Cruise on their homepage.
C. Some searches include far too much links on their home page which are disturbing to the users.
D. Tom Cruise shouldn’t be included iin the home page if a search business wants to make a profit.
1. 归纳总结题 C 2. 细节题 B 3. 词义题 D 4. 综合题 D 5. 分析推理题 C
Passage Four 经济 ---- 格林斯潘和美国经济
For all his vaunted talents, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan has never had much of a reputation as an economic forecaster. In fact, he shies away from making the precise to-the-decimal-point predictions that many other economists thrive on. Instead, he owes his success as a monetary policymaker to his ability to sniff out threats to the economy and manipulate interest rates to dampen the dangers he perceives.
Now, those instincts are being put to the test. Many Fed watchers -- and some policymakers inside the central bank itself -- are beginning to wonder whether Greenspan has lost his touch. Despite rising risks to the economy from a swooning（令人惊讶的） stock market a
nd soaring oil prices that could hamper（妨碍）growth, the Greenspan-led Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) opted to leave interest rates unchanged. But in a rare dissent（反对）, two of the Fed's 12 policymakers broke ranks and voted for a cut in rates -- Dallas Fed President Robert D. McTeer Jr. and central bank Governor Edward M. Gramlich.
The move by McTeer, the Fed's self-styled "Lonesome Dove," was no surprise. But Gramlich's was. This was the first time that the monetary moderate had voted against the chairman since joining the Fed's board in 1997. And it was the first public dissent by a governor since 1995.
Despite the split vote, it's too soon to count the maestro大师 of monetary policy out. Greenspan had good reasons for not cutting interest rates now. And by acknowledging in the statement issued after the meeting that the economy does indeed face risks, Greenspan left the door wide open to a rate reduction in the future. Indeed, former Fed Governor Lyle Gramley thinks chances are good that the central bank might even cut rates before its next scheduled meeting after congressional elections.
So why didn't the traditionally risk-averse Greenspan cut rates now as insurance against the dangers dogging（尾随） growth? For one thing, he still thinks the economy is in recovery mode. Consumer demand remains buoyant（有活力的） and has even been turbocharged（增强） recently by a new wave of mortgage refinancing（抵押再融资）. Economists reckon that homeowners will extract some $100 billion in cash from their houses in the second half of this year. And despite all the corporate gloom（暗淡）, business spending has shown signs of picking up, though not anywhere near as strongly as the Fed would like.
Does that mean that further rate cuts are off the table? Hardly. Watch for Greenspan to try to time any rate reductions to when they'll have the most psychological pop on business and investor confidence. That's surely no easy feat, but it's one that Greenspan has shown himself capable of more than once in the past. Don't be surprised if he surprises everyone again.
1. Alan Greenspan owes his reputation much to _______________. ?? A.?his successful predictions of economy
?? B.?his timely handling of interest rates
?? C.?his unusual economic policies
?? D. his unique sense of dangers
2. It can be inferred from the passage that _________________.
A.?instincts most often misguide the monetary policies
B.?Greenspan has lost his control of the central bank
C.?consensus（一致同意） is often the case among Fed’s policy-makers
D.?Greenspan wouldn’t tolerate such a dissent
3. Gramley’s remarks are mentioned to indicate that ___________________.
A.?Greenspan didn’t rule out the possibility of a future rate reduction
B.?Greenspan’s monetary policy may turn out to be a failure
C.?Greenspan’s refusal to cut rates now was justified
D.?Greenspan will definitely cut the r
ates before the next meeting.
4. From the fifth paragraph, we can learn that ____________________.
A.?economy is now well on its way to recovery
B.?economists are uncertain about consumer demand
C.?corporate performance is generally not encouraging
D. businesses have been investing the way the Fed hoped
5. The author seems to regard Greenspan’s manipulation of interest rates with _____________.
?? A. disapproval?????? B. doubt??????? C.? approval??????? D. admiration
1.细节理解题B 2. 推理题C 3. 推断题A 4.主旨题 C 5. 态度题D
Passage Five 经济 ---- 原油价格
Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC agreed to supply-cuts, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26 a barrel, up from less than $10 last December. This near-tripling of oil prices calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled（翻四倍）, and 1979-80, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gloom and doom this time?
The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the northern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term.
Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be less severe than in the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accounts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europe, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even quite big changes in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the past.
Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuels and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have reduced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less oil than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) rich economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD（经济合作和发展组织） estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income loss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging economies—to which heavy industry has shifted—have become more energy-intensive, and so could be more seriously squeezed.
One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the world is only just emerging from economic de
cline. The Economist's commodity price index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped by 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%.
1. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is ____.
A. global inflation. B. reduction in supply.
C. fast growth in economy. D. Iraq's suspension of exports.
2. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will go up dramatically if ____.
A. price of crude rises. B. commodity prices rise.
C. consumption rises. D. oil taxes rise.
3. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries _______ .
A. heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive.
B. income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices.
C. manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed.
D. oil price changes have no significant impact on GDP.
4. We can draw a conclusion from the text that _____.
A. oil-price shocks are less shocking now.
B. inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks.
C. energy conservation can keep down the oil prices.
D. the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry.
5. From the text we can see that the writer seems ____.
A. optimistic. B. sensitive. C. gloomy. D. scared.
1.细节题B 2.细节推理题 D 3. 推断理解题D 4.推理归纳题A 5.态度题A
Passage Six 电子商务
Ten years ago, Pierre Omidyar, a software engineer working in California’s Silicon Valley, began thinking about how to use the internet for a trading system in which buyers and sellers could establish a genuine market price. Over a long holiday weekend he wrote the computer code. At first, a trickle of users arrived at his website—including his girlfriend, who traded PEZ candy dispensers. By the end of 1995, several thousand auctions had been completed and interest in eBay was growing. And it grew and grew. From this modest beginning, eBay has become a global giant, with around 150m registered users worldwide who are set to buy and sell goods worth more than $40 billion this year.
The remarkable tale of eBay’s growth points to some important lessons for any business trying to operate online — and today that includes, one way or another, most firms. The commercial opportunities presented by an expanding global web seem almost limitless. But the pace of change is rapid, and so is the ferocity of competition. To succeed, firms need agility, an open mind and the ability to reinvent themselves repeatedly. Most of all, they need to listen carefully to their customers, paying close attention to what they do and don’t want.
Such qualities, of course, would be valuable in any kind of business. Yet for online firms they are not a luxury, but necessary for mere survival. This is true for a variety of reasons. The internet is not only growing, but changing rapidly —
which, in turn, changes the rules of the game for any business relying on it. The barriers to entry are still low compared with those for most offline businesses, which means that just keeping track of your existing rivals is not enough. These may not represent the greatest competitive threat tomorrow or the next day. That could come from a number of directions — a firm in a different type of online business; one that does not yet exist; or even from one of your own customers. On top of all this, the behavior of many consumers is constantly changing as well, as individuals discover new ways to shop and interact with each other via the web.
All these factors make the internet a dangerous place to do business, as well as one full of promise. eBay’s history demonstrates both of those things. It is probably safe to say that nothing like eBay could have existed without the internet—or could have grown so fast. Even though there have been signs of the firm’s blistering pace slowing a bit in America, its most “mature” market, there remain vast opportunities overseas, particularly, some argue, in China. Meg Whitman, eBay’s chief executive, believes the company is still only at the beginning of what it could achieve.
1. What is the purpose of the first paragraph?
A．To introduce the founder of eBay and his girlfriend.
B．To demonstrate how clever the founder of eBay is.
C．To show how eBay started and has grown.
D．To introduce eBay to people.
2. Which of the following best summarizes Pierre Omidyar’s intention with regard to eBay?
A．To set up a global internet business.
B．To allow people to freely buy and sell on the internet at acceptable prices.
C．To set up a mechanism on the internet to allow people to trade at true market prices.
D．To se up a business mechanism for his girlfriend.
3. Which of these is it NOT necessary for a company selling on the internet to do?
A．Have the most competitive price for each of their online products.
B．Be able to change to suit the prevailing market conditions.
C．Be prepared to consider all options and alternatives.
D．Have a good idea of what their customers do not want.
4. What does “barriers to entry are still low compared with those for most offline businesses” in paragraph 3 mean?
A．It is easier to set up an internet business than a conventional one.
B．Internet trade is growing faster than traditional business sector.
C．It is cheaper to set up an internet business than a traditional one.
D．Companies generally prefer to do business online rather than offline.
5. Why does the article conclude that the internet “is a dangerous place to do business”?
A．Because companies that sell online may be unreliable.
B．Because there are no controls on doing business on the internet.
C．Because doing business online is unpredictable.
D．Because even companies like eBay have problems doing business online.
旨题C 2. 细节题C 3. 细节题A 4. 句意理解题A 5. 推理归纳题C
Passage Seven 说明文 ---- 工具的改良
Design of all the new tools and implements is based on careful experiments with electronic instruments. First, a human “guinea pig” is tested using a regular tool. Measurements are taken of the amount of work done, and the buildup of heat in the body. Twisted joints and stretched muscles can not perform as well, it has been found, as joints and muscles in their normal positions. The same person is then tested again, using a tool designed according to the suggestions made by Dr. Tichauer. All these tests have shown the great improvement of the new designs over the old. One of the electronic instruments used by Dr. Tichauer, the myograph （肌动记器）, makes visible through electrical signals the work done by human muscle.
Another machine measures any dangerous features of tools, thus proving information upon which to base a new design. One conclusion of tests made with this machine is that a tripod stepladder is more stable and safer to use than one with four legs.
This work has attracted the attention of efficiency experts and time-and-motion-study engineer, but its value goes far beyond that. Dr. Tichauer’s first thought is for the health of the tool user. With the repeated use of the same tool all day long on production lines and in other jobs, even light manual work can put a heavy stress on one small area of the body. In time, such stress can cause a disabling disease. Furthermore, muscle fatigue is a serious safety hazard.
Efficiency is the by-product of comfort, Dr. Tichauer believes, and his new designs for traditional tools have proved his point.1. What are involved in the design of a new tool according to the passage? A) Electronic instruments and a regular tool. B) A human “guinea pig” and a regular tool. C) Electronic instruments and a human “guinea pig”. D) Electronic instruments, a human “guinea pig” and a regular tool.
2. From the passage we know that joints and muscles perform best when __________________. A)?they are twisted and stretched B) they are in their normal positions C) they are tested with a human “guinea pig” D)?they are tested with electronic instruments
3. A “myograph” (Para. 2, Line 1) is an electronic instrument that ________________. A) is able to design new tools B) measures the amount of energy used C) enable people to see the muscular movements D) visualizes electrical signals
4. It can be inferred from the passage that ________________. A) a stepladder used to have four legs. B) it is dangerous to use tools C) a tripod is safer in a tool design D) workers are safer on production lines
5. Dr. Tichauer started his experiments initially to _________________. A) improve efficiency B) increase production C) reduce work load D) improve comfortKey: D B C A D
经济 ---- 短缺原料的价格
Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative sense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing absolute scarcity; but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity of resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.
The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society’s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ultimately be taken into account.
In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this relationship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs, in turn, depends on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up correspondingly.
1. What does this passage mainly discuss?
A) The scarcity of manufactured goods.
B) The value of scarce materials.
C) The manufacturing of scarce goods.
D) The cost of producing shoes.
2. According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an item?
A) The amount of time and money spent in producing it.
B) The opportunities a person has to buy it.
C) The value of what could have been produced instead.
D) The value of the resources used in its production.
3. According to the passage, what is the relationship between production and resources?
A) Available resources stimulate production.
B) Resources are totally independent of production.
C) Production increases as resources increase.
D) Production lessens the amount of available resources.
4. What are included in the price of a good in a market economy?
A) The cost of all elements in production.
B) The cost of not making other goods.
C) The efficiency of the manufacturing process.
D) The quantity of materials supplied.
5. Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society as defined in the passage?
A) A family buying a dog.
B) Eating in a restaurant instead of at home.
C) Using land for a house instead of a park.
D) Staying at home instead of going to school.
2. C细节归纳题。第二段中“Every act of production uses up some of society’s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else.”说明机会成本是用可生产的其他商品来衡量的，选项C正好符合该意思。
3. D细节归纳题。第一段“Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.”说明社会总资源是有限的，用掉其中一些就会使总量减少并限制其他商品的生产。
4. A细节归纳题。文章第三段“In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depends on the cost of making it”(市场经济条件下，商品的价格和产量取决于其成本),然后又说 “The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them.”以鞋子为例说明商品价格是由生产要求决定的。