新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

Electronic Teaching Portfolio

Book Three

Unit Three: Friendship

Part I Get Started

Section A Discussion

▇Sit in groups of threes or fours and discuss the following questions.

1Do you have any good friends? What do you usually do with your friends when you are together?

2What kind of people do you like to make friends with?

3Do you think friendship is a necessity in life? Why or why not?

▆Answers for reference:

1Hints: playing games, listening to music, going shopping, seeing movies, chatting on the Internet, exchanging gossips, …

2Hints:

a)Birds of a feather flock together;

b)kindness, diligence, intelligence, humor; ready to render help; share the same hobbies, …

3Just as fish cannot live without water, we cannot live without friends. Without friends, life would be boring and barren.

a) Friends are companions who share both our joys and sadness.

b) Friends are mirrors through which we can see our own strengths and weaknesses.

c) Friends are tolerant towards us and help us make progress.

d) In times of difficulty, friends give us support and encouragement.

Section B Quotes

▇Study the following quotes about adversity. Which quote do you like best? Why?

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

George Washington

⊙True friendship is a plant of slow growth.

— George Washington

Interpretation:

Just like plants, friendship needs nurturing. Plants follow the life cycle of seeds, shoots and flowers before they bear fruits. True friendship grows in more or less the same way. It takes time to mature.

George Washington (1732-1799): the first President of the US. Washington was commander-in-chief of the colonial army during the American Revolutionary War. After the war he was elected President of the United States twice, but refused to remain in the position for a third time.

Benjamin Franklin

◎Be slow in choosing a friend; slower in changing.

—Benjamin Franklin

Interpretation:

Friends and friendships may have great influence on our lives and may last as long as we live. So we should be careful when choosing a friend and should be even more careful when we decide to end the friendship. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): a US politician, writer, and scientist. He was involved in writing two historically significant documents, the Declaration of Independence (《独立宣言》) and the Constitution of the United States (《美国宪法》). He is famous for proving that lightning is a form of electricity by doing a scientific test in which he flew a kite during a storm, and he invented the lightning conductor. He is also well known for his literary works such as Poor Richard’s Almanac(《穷理查德年鉴》1732-1757;亦译作《格言历书》、《穷理查历书》) and Autobiography (《自传》1790).

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

Samuel Johnson

◎ A man should keep his friendships in constant repair.

—Samuel Johnson

Interpretation:

It is important to maintain friendships. Long-standing friendships should be constantly strengthened and developed; otherwise they may fade or even be lost forever.

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784): a British critic and dictionary writer. He is famous for his Dictionary of

the English Language (1755), the first comprehensive dictionary of the English language ever published.

He was considered an excellent conversationalist (善于辞令的人). His intelligent, amusing, and interesting words are still widely quoted today.

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

Charles Caleb Colton

◎True friendship is like sound health; the value of it is seldom known until it is lost.

—Charles Caleb Colton

Interpretation:

Friendship is compared to health. One often fails to see the value of health until it is lost. The same is true of friendships.

Charles Caleb Colton (1780-1832): an English clergyman and author. He wrote a large body of writings in his short life, which ended with suicide after an illness. His aphorisms (格言,警句) about friendship, integrity (正直, 诚实), wealth, and knowledge are often cited even to this day.

Section C Watching and Discussion

▇Forrest Gump is a 1994 American film starred Tom Hanks. The story depicts several decades in the life of Forrest Gump, a slow-witted yet athletically talented man who witnesses, and in some cases influences, some of the defining events of the latter half of the 20th century in the United States between 1944 and 1982.

Watch the following video clip about young Forrest and Jenny and do the tasks that follow.

1Answer the following questions.

1)What is “the sweetest voice” Forrest Gump heard? Why was it the sweetest voice?

Answers: Jenny’s voice. Jenny was friendly to Forrest.

2)What did they usually do together as friends?

Answers: They were always together, learning from each other and being happy.

2The film Forrest Gump has become a classic. How will you describe the friendship between Forrest, a dumb boy, and Jenny, a beautiful girl?

Hints:

Jenny is friendly and Forrest honest and sincere, both eager for loving friends, and both eager to please the other.

▇Script:

(I don’t recall what I got for my first Christmas, and I don’t know when I went on my first outdoor picnic, but I do remember the first time I heard the sweetest voice in the wide world.)

Jenny: You can sit here if you want.

(I had never seen anything so beautiful in my life. She was like an angel. )

Jenny:Well, are you going to sit down or aren’t you?

Jenny: What’s wrong with your legs?

Forrest: Nothing at all, thank you. My legs are just fine and dandy.

(I just sat next to her on that bus and had a conversation all the way to school.)

Forrest:My back’s crooked like a question mark.

(Next to Mama, no one ever talked to me or asked me questions.)

Jenny: Are you stupid or something?

Forrest:Mama says, “Stupid is as stupid does.”

Jenny:I’m Jenny.

Forrest:I’m Forrest, Forrest Gump.

(From that day on, we were always together. Jenny and me was like peas and carrots. She taught me how to climb.)

Jenny: Come on, Forrest, you can do it.

(I showed her how to dangle. She helped me learn how to read, and I showed her how to swing. Sometimes, we’d just sit out and wait for the stars.)

Forrest:Mama’s going to worry about me.

Jenny: Just stay a little longer.

(For some reason, Jenny did never wanna to go home.)

Forrest: OK, Je nny, I’l l stay.

(She was my most special friend.)

Part II Listen and Respond

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

Section B Task One: Focusing on the Main Ideas

▇Choose the best answer to each of the following questions according to the information contained in the listening passage.

1When do people come into your life “for a reason”?

A)When they know you well.

B)When you need them in life.

C)When you can support their career.

D)When they are willing to listen to your troubles.

2Who will end the friendship with the person that is in your life for a reason?

A)The person himself.

B)You.

C)Neither you nor the person.

D)Both you and the person.

3What does a “friend for a season” mean?

A)Someone who is good at making you laugh.

B)Someone who teaches you how to have fun.

C)Someone who will stay in your life for a short time.

D)Someone who comes into your life only for fun.

4What is a lifetime friend?

A)Someone who always helps you out of difficulties.

B)Someone who understands you better than anyone else.

C)Someone who has experienced hardships with you.

D)Someone who together with you makes up a single soul in two bodies.

5What is the passage mainly about?

A)Three different stages of friendship.

B)Three different types of friendship in our life.

C)Three different ways of getting along with people.

D)Three different lessons on how to be good to your friends.

▇Key:

1 B

2 A

3 C

4 D

5 B

Section C Task Two: Zooming In on the Details

▇Listen to the passage again and fill in each of the blanks according to what you have heard.

1People come into our life for a ______________, for a ______________ or for a ______________.

2When you __________ why people come into your life, you will know exactly what to do.

3When someone is in your life for a reason, it is usually to __________ you have expressed outwardly or ______________. They have come to help you out of a difficulty, or to provide you with

____________and __________.

4When people come into your life for a season, they may bring you ____________________ or make you ____________.

5Lifetime friendships are based on ___________ and between you and your friend. Lifetime friendships teach you lifetime ______________ and you should learn to ______________ them.

▇Answers:

1People come into our life for a reason, for a season or for a lifetime.

2When you figure out why people come into your life, you will know exactly what to do.

3When someone is in your life for a reason, it is usually to meet a need you have expressed outwardly or inwardly. They have come to help you out of a difficulty, or to provide you with guidance and support.

4When people come into your life for a season, they may bring you an experience of peace or make you laugh.

5Lifetime friendships are based on trust and understanding between you and your friend. Lifetime friendships teach you lifetime lessons and you should learn to accept them.

▇Script:

A Reason, a Season and a Lifetime

We meet thousands of people in our life. Some come into our life for a reason, some for a season, and some for a lifetime. When you figure out which it is, you will know exactly what to do.

When someone is in your life for a REASON, it is usually to meet a need you have expressed inwardly or outwardly. They have come to help you out of a difficulty, or to provide you with guidance and support.

Then, without any wrongdoing on your part or at a certain time, this person will say or do something to bring the relationship to an end. Sometimes they die; sometimes they just walk away; and sometimes they force you to do something that you do not like.

When people come into your life for a SEASON, it is time for you to share, grow, or learn. They may bring you an experience of peace or make you laugh. They may teach you something you have never done. They usually give you an unbelievable amount of joy, but only for a season.

LIFETIME friendships are based on trust and understanding between you and your friend. Together, you have gone through good times as well as bad times. Lifetime friendships teach you lifetime lessons. And your job is to accept the lessons and love the people who teach you how to be good. So, what is a lifetime friend? It is a single soul in two bodies.

Part III Read and Explore

Text A

Section A Discovering the Main Ideas

Exercise 1 Answer the following questions with the information contained in Text A.

1Why do people tend to have a thin understanding of friendship?

2What are the three kinds of friendship according to Aristotle?

3What does Cicero emphasize in his definition of friendship?

4What is meant by “virtuous friends” according to the classical view?

▇Answers for reference:

1It is because there is a lack of socially acknowledged criteria for what makes a person a friend.

2They are friendship based on utility, friendship based on pleasure and friendship based on goodness.

3He emphasizes the element of virtue in friendship.

4Virtuous friends possess moral excellence and share a commitment to the good.

Exercise 2 Text A can be divided into four parts with the paragraph number(s) of each part provided as follows. Write down the main idea of each part.

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

Section B In-Depth Study

Friendship is an eternal (永恒的) theme (主题) in human history. A life without friendship is hard to imagine. But what is friendship? Read the following text and see if you can gain some new insights into the true meaning of friendship.

What is Friendship?

Michele E. Doyle & Mark K. Smith

1 When we approach the notion of friendship, our first problem is that there is a lack of firmly agreed and socially acknowledged criteria for what makes a person a friend. In one setting, we may describe someone as a friend; in another, the label may seem less appropriate. Therefore, people tend to have a very thin understanding of what friendship really means. To help us understand what friendship really means, we need to review some classical views of friendship.

2 One classical view of friendship is provided by Aristotle, the famous ancient Greek philosopher. Aristotle distinguishes between what he believes to be genuine friendships and two other forms: one based on mutual usefulness, the other on pleasure. So, according to Aristotle, we may find three kinds of friendship:

3Friendship based on utility. Utility is an impermanent thing: it changes according to circumstances. When the ground for friendship disappears, the friendship also breaks up because that is what keeps it alive. Friendships of this kind seem to occur most frequently between the elderly, because at their age what they want is not pleasure but utility. Friendships based on utility are also frequently found among those in middle or early life who are pursuing their own advantage. Such persons do not spend much time together, because sometimes they do not even like one another, and therefore feel no need of such an association unless they are mutually useful. They take pleasure in each other’s company only in so far as they have hopes of advantage from it.

4Friendship based on pleasure. Friendship between the young is thought to be grounded on pleasure, because the lives of the young are regulated by their feelings, and their chief interests are in their own pleasure and the opportunity of the moment. As they grow up, however, their tastes change too, so that they are quick to make and to break friendships. That is why they fall in and out of friendship quickly, changing their attitude often, even within the same day. But the young do like to spend the day and live together, because that is how they realize the object of their friendship.

5Friendship based on goodness. Perfect friendship is based on goodness.Only the friendship of those who are good, and similar in their goodness, is perfect. And it is those who desire the good of their friends for the friends’ sake that are the truest friends, because each loves the other for what he is, and not for any incidental quality. The conduct of good men is the same or similar. It is between good men that both love and friendship are chiefly found and in the highest form. Such friendships are rare because men of this kind are few and they need time and intimacy; for as the saying goes, true friends must go through trials and tribulations together. And no two persons can accept each other and become friends until each has proved to the other that he is worthy of love, and so won his trust. The wish for friendship may develop rapidly, but true friendship does not.

6 Another classical view of friendship can be found in the writings of Cicero, an ancient Roman statesman and orator. His writings on ethics, the philosophy of religion and natural law have been influential. According to Cicero, true friendship is only possible between good men. He further defines “the good” as “those whose actions and lives leave no question as to their honor, purity, equity, and liberality; who are free from greed, lust, and violence; and who have the courage of their convictions.” The friendship between good men, based on virtue, does offer material benefits, but it does not seek them. Moreover, just as in friendships and relationships, those who possess any superiority must regard themselves as equals of those who are less fortunate, so these latter must not be annoyed at being surpassed in genius, fortune, or rank.

7 Thus, we may see that the traditional idea of friendship is made up of three components: Friends must enjoy each other’s company; they must be useful to one another; and they must share a commitment to the good. According to the classical views, virtuous friends are bound together, as they recognize each other’s moral excellence. To perceive a friend, therefore, is in a manner to perceive oneself; and to know a friend is in

a manner to know oneself. Each can be said to provide a mirror in which the other may see himself. The moral excellence of friendship, thus, involves a high level of development and expression of the altruistic emotions of sympathy, concern and care. Friendship of this kind necessarily involves conversations about well-being and of what might be involved in living the good life.

▇课文参考译文

友谊的真谛

米歇尔〃E〃多伊尔马克〃K〃史密斯1 我们探讨友谊这个概念时,遇到的第一个问题是,没有一致赞同并获社会公认的认定(某人为)朋友的标准。在某一情境下,我们会把某个人称为朋友;然而,情境一旦变迁,朋友这个称呼就显得没那么贴切。因此,人们对友谊的真谛的理解往往是非常肤浅的。为了帮助我们理解友谊的真正含义,我们需要回顾有关友谊的几种传统的看法。

2 一种传统的友谊观在古希腊著名的哲学家亚里士多德的著作里得以阐述。他将自己心目中真正的友谊同另外两种友谊截然分开。这两种友谊分别是:基于互利的友谊;基于愉悦的友谊。因此,根据亚里士多德的观点,我们可以将友谊分为三类。

3 建立在功利之上的友谊。功利并非永恒,它依照环境而变化。友谊的根基一旦消失,友谊也随之破灭,因为是功利使其存活。这类友谊似乎在老人之间最为常见,因为上了年纪的人需要的不是愉悦而是实用。基于功利的友谊也同样存在于追逐个人利益的中年人和青年人中。这些人不会在一起消闲时光,因为他们有时甚至不喜欢对方,因而觉得除非可以互相利用,否则没有交往的必要。只有当他们认为彼此有希望相互利用的时候,才会乐于呆在一起。

4 建立在愉悦之上的友谊。年轻人之间的友谊常被看作是建立在愉悦基础之上的,因为年轻人的生活受感情支配,他们感兴趣的主要是自己的快乐和眼前的重要机会。然而,他们的情趣随着自己日渐成长也会变化,他们交友容易,分手也干脆。年轻人的态度变化无常,甚至一日数变,难怪他们的友谊总是迅速地开始,又匆匆地结束。然而年轻人确实喜欢终日作伴,一起生活,他们认为友谊的意义就是如此。

5 建立在美德之上的友谊。完美无瑕的友谊立足于美德。只有那些品德高尚而且拥有相似美德的人之间建立的友谊才是最完美的。只有那些为朋友着想、渴望朋友具有美德的人才是真正的朋友。这样的朋友彼此喜欢不是因为某种附带的品质,而是对方真实的为人。品行高尚的人,其行为是相同的,或者是类似的。爱和友谊多半在品行高尚的人之间发生,而且以最高雅的形式出现。这种友谊是罕见的,因为品行高尚的人并不多见,而且他们需要时间,需要交往。常言道,真正的朋友必须同甘共苦,历经风雨。只有当两个人互相证明自己值得爱并获得对方的信任之后,彼此方能接受对方为朋友。交友的意愿可能倏忽而至,但真正的友谊却要慢慢培养。

6 另一种传统的友谊观可以在古罗马政治家、演说家西塞罗的著作里找到。西塞罗论述伦理、宗教哲学和自然规律的作品影响广泛。西塞罗认为,真正的友谊只能在好人之间发生。他进而将“好人”定义为“那些行为和生活无损于自己的荣誉、纯洁、公平和开明的人;那些摆脱了贪婪、欲念和暴力的人;那些敢于依照自己的信念说话和做事的人。”好人之间建立的这种友谊立足于美德,它确实可以带来物质利益,但决不以追求物质利益为目标。而且在处理朋友关系和其它人际关系时,优越于他人的人必须平等地对待那些没那么幸运的人;同样,后者也不能因为对方的天赋、财富、地位在自己之上而恼怒。

7 我们由此可以看出,传统的友谊观由三个要素构成:朋友以相伴为乐;朋友必须彼此受益;彼此都有志于崇高的事业。这些传统的友谊观告诉我们,两个品德高尚的朋友是永不分离的,因为彼此认同对方的高尚品德。因此,认识朋友在某种意义上就是认识自我,了解朋友在某种意义上就是了解自我。可以说朋友就好比是一面镜子,每个人都可以从朋友身上看清自己。因此,在具有高尚品德的友谊中,同情心、关心、爱心这些忘我的情感会得以高层次的培养和充分的表达。这类朋友势必会涉及幸福安康这一话题,讨论如何过高尚的生活。

Good Usage (Para. 1)

approach the notion of

firmly agreed and socially acknowledged criteria for describe…as

in one setting, …. in another

a very thin understanding of

some classical views of

Good Usage (Para. 2)

distinguishes between…

mutual usefulness

Good Usage (Para. 3)

based on utility

change according to circumstances

break up

keep it alive

are pursuing one’s own advantage

feel no need of

mutually useful

take pleasure in each other’s company

in so far as…

have hopes of advantage from

Good Usage (Para.4)

be grounded on pleasure

the opportunity of the moment

quick to make and to break friendships

fall in and out of friendship

within the same day

realize the object of...

Good Usage (Para.5)

based on goodness

each loves the other for what he is

in the highest form

as the saying goes

go through trials and tribulations together

is worthy of love

won his trust

Good Usage (Para.6)

defines…as…

leave no question as to…

are free from

have the courage of their convictions

possess any superiority

regard…as equals

be annoyed at

being surpassed in genius, fortune, or rank

Good Usage (Para.7)

enjoy each other’s company

share a commitment to

virtuous friends

are bound together

moral excellence

altruistic emotions

develop a shared idea of

Key Words and Expressions for Text A

describe…as

state sb. / sth. to be sb. / sth.; call 把……叫做;称作

e. g. 1. He describes himself as a doctor; but in fact, he knows little about medicine.

2. I hesitate to describe him as really clever.

我很难说他真聪明。

classical a.

[no comp.] based on or belonging to an old or established system of principles or methods, e.g. in art or science; traditional [无比较级]经典的;传统的

e. g. 1. Did she mainly study classical literature or modern literature?

2. Do you prefer classical music like Mozart, or pop?

你喜欢如莫扎特那样的古典音乐还是流行音乐?

Word choice

classic / classical

Classical强调“传统”,可以表达2个不同意思:1“遵循传统风格的”,如a classical composer是“一个古典作曲家”。2“古希腊古罗马的”,如a classical scholar是“研究古希腊古罗马的学者”。Classic可以表达3个不同意思:1描述某物已经被认定在同类中具有相当高质量,如a classic movie 是“一部优秀影片”;2表达“典型的”,如a classic mistake是“一个典型错误”。3 表达“优雅但是很简单而且传统的”,如a classic design是“一个经典的设计”。

distinguish between

recognize differences between 辨别,分清

e. g. 1. The two paintings are quite similar. I can’t distinguish between the original and the fake.

2. English law clearly distinguishes between murder and manslaughter.

英国法律明确了“谋杀”和“过失杀人”的区别。

utility n.

1. fml the degree of usefulness 〖正式〗有用,实用,效用

e. g. 1. It is a research project with limited practical utility.

2. Belief in the utility of higher education is shared by students nationwide.

全国学生都相信高等教育是有用的。

2. [C esp. pl.] a service such as gas or electricity provided for people to use公用事业(如水电煤气等)

e. g. Rescue teams worked desperately to restore utilities in the area shattered by the hurricane.

救援小组竭力抢修在飓风中毁坏的水电煤气等公用设施。

ground n.

[C esp. pl.] reason(s) or justification for saying, doing or believing sth. [尤作复数]说话、做事或相信某

事的原因或理由

e. g. 1. The company has reasonable grounds to dismiss him; he was late for work three times last week

despite constant warnings.

2. He had been fired from his job on the grounds of incompetence.

因为不称职他被解雇了。

break up

come or bring to an end, esp. by separating 结束;解散

e. g. 1. She has done everything possible to prevent their relationship from breaking up.

2. The party had to break up because of a sudden power cut.

由于突然停电,聚会不得不解散。

take pleasure in (doing) sth.

enjoy (doing) sth. 以(做)某事为乐;喜欢(做)某事

e. g. 1. He takes great pleasure in taking pictures of birds.

2. She seemed to take pleasure in our suffering.

她似乎对我们的痛苦幸灾乐祸。

in so far as

to the degree that 到……程度

e. g. 1. I will help you in so far as I can.

2. This is the truth in so far as I know it.

就我所知,这就是事实。

ground vt.

[(on)] base [常与on连用]根据;以……为依据

e. g. 1. Sally’s argument is soundly grounded on facts.

2. The professor’s theory is grounded on the resul ts of his experiments.

教授的理论以他的实验结果为依据。

regulate vt.

control, esp. by rules; bring order or method to (尤指以规章)控制,管理

e. g. 1. His mother strictly regulates what books he reads in his spare time.

2. This section of the highway is regulated by policemen 24 hours a day.

警察24小时管制这段公路。

regulation n.

as the saying goes

according to a saying 正如俗话所说,常言道

e. g. 1. As the saying goes, “A friend in need is a friend indeed.”

2. “There is no smoke without fire”, as the saying goes.

常言道:无风不起浪。

trials and tribulations

troubles and events that cause suffering 艰难困苦

e. g. 1. She has gone through trials and tribulations in bringing up three children all by hersel

f.

2. After many trials and tribulations, we finally reached our destination.

我们经历了千辛万苦,终于到达目的地。

influential a.

having great influence or importance有很大影响(力)的

e. g. 1. She is one of the most influential figures in local politics.

她是当地政治生活中最有影响力的人物之一。

2. The study looks at the influential role of professional athletes in public life.

本研究探讨职业运动员在大众生活中的影响力。

influence n. & v.

as to

(used esp. when speaking of arguments and decisions) on the subject of; concerning (尤用于争论和作出决定时)有关,关于

e. g. 1. She had no idea as to whether he was the right person for the job.

2. As to where we’ll get the money, let’s talk about that later.

至于我们从哪得到这笔钱,以后再讨论。

have the courage of one’s (own) convictions

be brave enough to do or say what one thinks is right 有勇气去做或说出自己认为正确的事

e. g. 1. He had the courage of his convictions and was still pursuing his studies at the age of 80.

2. If they had the courage of their convictions, they might get more people voting for them.

如果他们敢于去做自己认为正确的事情,就有可能赢得更多人的选票。

virtue n.

[U] moral goodness or excellence; [C] a good quality of character or behaviour 美德;德行

e. g. 1. He loved her not because of her beauty or wealth, but because of her virtue, i.e., her moral

excellence.

2. I hope my son will understand the traditional virtue of hard work.

我希望我的儿子能懂得勤劳这一传统美德。

possess vt.

[not in progressive forms] fml have as one’s property, as a quality, etc.; own [不用进行式]〖正式〗拥有,占有;具有(某种品质)

e. g. 1. I had to give up my dream of becoming a singer because I don’t possess a beautiful voice.

2. The Western Highlands possess a beauty and a majesty found nowhere else in Britain.

西部高地的美丽和壮观在英国是独一无二的。

surpass vt.

fml do or be better than; exceed〖正式〗胜过;优于;超过

e. g. 1. To surpass your teacher in drawing, you must at first try hard to do as well as he does.

2. The beauty of the scenery surpassed all my expectations.

我万万没想到风景那么漂亮。

commitment n.

[C; U (to)] deeply-felt loyalty to a particular aim, belief, etc.; a responsibility or promise to follow certain beliefs or a certain course of action [常与to连用]忠诚;信奉;奉献;承诺;承担的义务

e. g. 1. Without your commitment to the company our success would not have been possible.

2. She is known chiefly for her commitment to nuclear disarmament.

她为大家所知,主要是因为她坚持主张消除核武器。

Collocations:

make a commitment 作出承诺

fulfil / honour / meet a commitment 履行义务

have / take on a commitment 承担义务

bind vt.(bound, bound)

usu. fml or lit tie together; fig unite 〖一般正式或文〗捆,绑;〖比喻〗结合

e. g. 1. The three girls are bound together by the same hobbies and close friendship.

2. They bound his hands together tightly.

他们把他的手紧紧地绑在一起。

Difficult Sentences for Text A

1.…there is a lack of firmly agreed and socially acknowledged criteria for what makes a person a friend.

(Para.1)

Q: What does “firmly agreed and socially acknowledged criteria” mean?

A: It means “well established standards accepted by all people”.

Q: Please translate this sentence into Chinese.

A: 没有一致赞同并获社会公认的认定(某人为)朋友的标准。

2.They take pleasure in each other’s company only in so far as they have hopes of advantage from it. (Para.3)

Q: What does “advantage” in this sentence mean?

A: It means “benefit, personal gains”.

Q: Please paraphrase the sentence.

A: They enjoy being together only to the extent that they expect to benefit from each other.

3.And it is those who desire the good of their friends for the friends’ sake that a re the truest friends, because

each loves the other for what he is, and not for any incidental quality. (Para. 5)

Q: Have you noticed the sentence pattern “It is…that”? What function does it have?

A: The pattern “It is…that” is used for emphasis: the part between is emphasized.

Q: Please translate the sentence into Chinese.

A: 只有那些为朋友着想、渴望朋友具有美德的人才是真正的朋友。这样的朋友喜欢彼此不是因为某种附带的品质,而是对方真实的为人。

4.And no two persons can accept each other and become friends until each has proved to the other that he is

worthy of love, and so won his trust. (Para. 5)

Q: Please paraphrase this sentence.

A: Two persons can develop their relation into friendship only when each has proved that he deserves the love of the other and thus has won the other’s trust.

Q: Please translate this sentence into Chinese.

A: 只有当两个人互相证明自己值得爱并获得对方的信任之后,彼此方能接受对方为朋友。Extended Questions

▇Extended questions (Para. 1)

1.What are YOUR criteria for what makes a person a friend?

A:Hints: honest, unselfish, optimistic, considerate, polite, righteous, reliable, kind-hearted, good-tempered, hard-working, helpful, etc.

2.Do you know any classical views of friendship in Chinese culture?

A:孔子曰:“益者三友……。友直,友谅,友多闻,益矣。”《论语〃季氏〃4》

Confucius said, “Three kinds of friends will do one good…Upright friends, trustworthy friends, and well-informed friends will do one good.”

▇Extended question (Para. 2)

3.What does Aristotle think of the other two forms of friendship?

A:According to Aristotle, the other two forms of friendship are not genuine ones.

▇Extended questions (Para. 3)

4.Do you agree that old people tend to base friendship on utility rather than pleasure?

A:Hints:

For a “yes”answer: Because old people need help, especially those who have retired. They need others’ company so that they will not feel isolated or lonely.

For a “No” answer: Today many old people like to pursue spiritual well-being. They make friends not because they need help from each other but because they appreciate each other’s virtues or they share

a common interest.

▇Extended questions (Para. 4)

5.Do you think that young people are quick to make and break friendships?

A:Hints:

For a “Yes” answer: Because changes in circumstances take place frequently with young people as they grow up, and the changing circumstances usually affect their friendships.

Or: It depends. If their life does not change much or if they are truly devoted to each other, young people can also develop long-term or even lifetime friendships despite the changing circumstances.

▇Extended questions (Para. 5)

6.Do you agree that true friends must go through trials and tribulations together? Why?

A:Yes. One’s wish for friendship may develop rapidly, but it takes time for true friendship to blossom, and difficult times can test the truthfulness of things.

▇Extended questions (Para. 6)

7.Do you think it possible to build true friendship between people of different social ranks?

A:Opinions may vary, but according to Cicero, true friendship happens “between good men, based on virtue”, which is not affected by ranks or any other factor, so it’s possible to develop true friendship between people of different social positions.

▇Extended questions (Para. 7)

8.Explain the statement “Each can be said to provide a mirror in which the other may see himself.”

A:For two genuine friends, each is like a mirror to the other. Knowing your friend is to know yourself;

through understanding your friend you can find out whether you have a commitment to the good. Section C Voicing Your Views

Work in groups of threes or fours and discuss the following statements about friendship. Then share your ideas with the whole class.

1)Friends must be useful to each other.

2)Friendship between the young is grounded on pleasure.

3)Permanent friendship exists only between good men.

▇Hints:

1)Friends must be useful to each other.

A) A friend in need is a friend indeed.

B)Friendship will last so long as both sides can benefit from it.

C)Friendship demands a lot of give and not so much of take.

D)Friendship does offer material benefits, though it does not seek them.

2)Friendship between the young is grounded on pleasure.

A)Young people value pleasure more than material benefits, so they tend to base friendships on

pleasure.

B)Governed by their interests and emotions, young people tend to pursue friendships that could bring

joy and pleasure.

C)People of any age may have friendships based on pleasure.

3)Permanent friendship exists only between good men.

A)Since true friends appreciate each other’s goodness and help each other to pursue what is morally

right or worthy of praise, they will find the relationship most pleasurable and rewarding.

B)In a friendship between good people, one values the other not just for material benefits or pleasure

but for each other’s moral excellence.

C)Virtuous friends are bound together and have gone through trials and tribulations together, so their

friendship lasts long.

D)It is the good qualities in virtuous friends that make permanent friendship possible.

Text B

Section A Key Words and Expressions

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

keen a.

1.(of the mind, the feelings, the senses, etc.) good, strong, quick at understanding, etc. (思想、感情、感觉

等)良好的;敏锐的;敏捷的

e. g. 1. Even at the age of 90 he still had a keen mind — he was quick to understand everything.

2. Dogs, especially police dogs, have a keen sense of smell.

Collocations:

a keen mind 敏捷的头脑

keen eyesight 敏锐的眼光

a keen ear 灵敏的耳朵

a keen sense of smell 灵敏的嗅觉

2. [(on)] (of a person) having a strong, active interest in sth.; eager to do sth. [常与on连用](人)热衷的,

热心的;渴望(做某事)的

e. g. 1. She likes b iology, but she’s not too keen on physics.

2. They were very keen to start work as soon as possible.

correspond vi.

1. [(with)] exchange letters regularly [常与with连用]通信

e. g. 1. Bill wishes to correspond with students from US — he wants to make some pen friends.

2. They’ve been corresponding with each other about this matter for months.

correspondence n.信件;通信

correspondent n.通信者;通讯记者

2.[(with, to)] be in agreement; match [常与with或to连用]符合;相一致

e. g. 1. The witness’s statements correspond with the available evidence.

证人的陈述与现有证据吻合。

2. His first job was as a Lecturer, which roughly corresponds to Associate Professor here.

他第一份工作是做“Lecturer”,大概相当于这儿的“副教授”。

grasp

vt.1.take or keep a firm hold of, esp. with the hands 抓牢,抓紧

e. g. 1. We both grasped the handle of the big box and tried to lift it up onto the truck.

2. She is ready to grasp any opportunity to expand the business.

2. succeed in understanding 理解,领会

e. g. 1. Anyone who does not grasp the importance of budget control will never be successful in business.

2. Veronica has not yet grasped that to pass exams you have to work very hard.

n.1.hold, grip 抓住,把握

e. g. 1. Take a firm grasp of the handle and pull.

2. They had fled to America, and were beyond the grasp of their enemies.

2. understanding 理解,掌握

e. g. 1. She has a good grasp of the subject.

2. These complex formulae are beyond the grasp of the average pupil.

这些复杂公式一般学生是无法理解的。

Collocations:

a good / firm / thorough grasp of sth. 对……很好的理解

grasp on sth. 了解……

within one’s grasp 在理解范围内

beyond one’s grasp 无法理解

brilliant

a. 1. very bright, splendid, or showy in appearance 光亮的,光辉夺目的,灿烂的

e. g. 1. He closed his eyes against the brilliant light.

2. She was dressed in brilliant white.

2. extremely clever or skilful极聪明的,杰出的

e. g.1. I think that’s a brilliant idea.

2. It was his brilliant performance in My Left Foot that established his reputation.

gaze vi.look steadily, esp. for a long time and often without being conscious of what one is doing (尤指长时间无意识地)凝视;注视

e. g. 1. He gazed at me in disbelief when I told him the news.

2. Nell was still gazing out of the window.

sensible a.having or showing good sense; reasonable 明智的;合理的

e. g. 1.It’s sensible of you to avoid rich foods if you are feeling ill.

2. She is sensible about money and keeps track of every expense.

她花钱很理智,总是记录每笔开销。

Word choice:

sensible sensitive

sensible “明智的”,是指“能做出好判断的能力”。例如:It wasn’t very sensible to go out on your own so late at night.

sensitive意思是“敏感的”,可指身体上或情感上的“敏感”。例如:1. This is a soap for sensitive skin. 2.

This movie may upset a sensitive child.

unfold vt.open from a folded position 展开,打开(折叠之物)

e. g. 1. If we unfold the table we can fit eight people around it.

2. As the story unfolds, we learn more about Max’s childhood.

随着故事的展开,我们会知道更多麦克斯童年的事情。

appoint vt.

1. fml arrange or decide (esp. a time or place when sth. will happen) 〖正式〗约定,指定,决定(时间、

地点)

e. g. 1. Our visitors arrived at the appointed time; so the party started as planned.

2. The committee appointed a day in June for celebrations.

2. [(as, to)] choose for a position or job [常与as或to连用]任命;委任

e. g. 1. A lawyer was appointed to represent the child.

2. I can’t understand why they decided to appoint Wilson as managing director.

新世纪大学英语综合教程3 unit3 答案

cast an / one’s eye(s) over look through or examine sb. / sth. quickly 快速地看或查某人(某事物)

e. g. 1. I put a cheque of 1000 dollars on her desk but she turned away without even casting an eye over it.

2. Would you cast your eye over these calculations to check that they are correct?

你看一下这些计算数字,检查是否正确,好吗?

Verb phrases with “eye(s)”

keep an eye on sth. / sb. 照料某人/ 某事

have your eye on sth. 将某事作为自己的目标或目的

can’t take your eyes off sb. / sth.目不转睛地看着某人/ 某物

set / lay / clap eyes on sb. / sth. 看见某人/ 某物

keep an eye open / out (for sth.) 留心或注意某人/ 某事物

close / shut your eyes to sth. 不理会某事物;视而不见;熟视无睹

have a (good) eye for sth. 对某事物有判断力或鉴赏力;有眼力;有眼光

keep your eyes open / peeled / skinned警觉;留心

can do something with your eyes shut / closed做事没费多大力气;轻易地

have eyes in the back of your head 脑袋后边长着眼睛;能看到一切

be up to your eyes in sth. (工作)非常忙

have eyes bigger than your belly 眼大肚小;眼馋肚饱

tear down(esp. of a building) pull down, esp. violently; destroy 推倒(尤指建筑物);拆毁

e. g. 1. We have to tear down a number of houses so as to build a new school there.

2. A lot of the old tower blocks have been torn down to make way for new housing.

make a / one’s fortune earn a large amount of money 赚一大笔钱;发财

e. g. 1. He made a fortune by selling second-hand computers to students.

2. He had made a fortune out of gambling, but soon lost all his money.

lose track of fail to keep oneself informed about a person, situation, etc.; forget 失去……的线索;不了解……的动态;忘记

e. g. 1. I’ve lost track of her after she got married. I don’t know how she’s getting along.

2. I lost all track of time while I was listening to the music.

turn up

1. arrive; make one’s appearance 到达,来到

e. g. 1. I’m sure she will turn up soon. She’s never been late before.

2. We had arranged to meet in town but Sam didn’t turn up.

2. be found (esp. by chance) after being lost(失去后)被发现或找到(尤指偶然地)

e. g.I’m sure your watch will turn up one of these days.

3. (of an opportunity) present itself; happen (指机会)出现, 到来

e. g.He’s still hoping som ething will turn up.他仍在期待机会出现。

try for sth. / try out for sth. make an attempt to get or win; compete for, e. g. by taking part in a test 试图赢得;谋得,争取

e. g. 1. Leather exporters are trying for a larger market share.

2. You won’t make the team if you don’t try out.

不参加选拔就不能加入这个队。

pass on

1. move on 继续下去

e. g. 1. After two days’ rest, we decided it was time to pass on.

2. If you don’t have any questions about this topic, let’s pass on to the next one.

2. give to another person 传给(另一人)

e. g. 1. She said she’d pass the message on to the other students.

2. She caught my cold and passed it on to her husband.

3. Any increase in our costs will have to be passed on to the consumer.

我们增加的成本最终都得顾客承担。

check (up) on test or examine to see if sth. is correct, true, in good condition, etc. 检查,核实

e. g. 1. The police checked up on some drivers to make sure they are not drunk driving.

2.My neighbour comes in once a week to check on things and feed the fish.

(as) sure as fate infml absolutely sure〖非正式〗的的确确,千真万确

e. g. 1. He’s a great football fan; he will not miss the match, as sure as fate.

2. If I could get you out of there, I sure as fate would.

all of a sudden infml suddenly 〖非正式〗突然地,猛然地

e. g. 1. All of a sudden a man grabbed my bag and ran away.

2. All of a sudden I was seized with fear. I had forgotten to lock the door before I left.

be (placed / put) under arrest be made a prisoner 被逮捕;被拘捕;成为囚犯

e. g. 1. He is under arrest and may only be seen by his lawyer.

2.He was put under arrest for smuggling.

drop over / by pay a casual visit (to a person or place) 偶然访问(某人或某地);顺便访问

e. g. 1. They dropped over to see me on their way home from a movie.

2.I just dropped by to see how you were getting on.

Section B Difficult Sentences

1.In the doorway of a darkened hardware store stood a man, with an unlighted cigar in his mouth. (Para. 2)

1)Translate the sentence into Chinese.

Answers for reference:

只见一个光线黯淡的五金店门口,站着一个人,嘴里叼着没有点燃的雪茄。

2)Please pay attention to “full inversion”. Make two sentences with full inversion.

Answers for reference:

At the bottom of the steps sat the young couple.

Down fell a great pile of plates and dishes with a loud crash.

2.The waiting man pulled out a handsome watch, the lids of it set with small diamonds. (Para. 9)

1)Translate the sentence into Chinese.

Answers for reference:

那等候的人掏出一只精致的怀表,表盖上缀满了小粒钻石。

2)Study the italicized part and then translate the following sentence into English, imitating the use of

–ed in this sentence.

我们冲进了房子。房门因常年失修已经倒塌了。

Answers for reference:

We rushed into the house, the door of it collapsed from long years of neglect.

3.Then a tall man in a long overcoat, with the collar turned up to his ears, hurried across from the opposite

side of the street. (Para. 18)

1)Translate the sentence into Chinese.

Answers for reference:

一个身着大衣、衣领立起的高个子男人从街对面匆匆走了过来。

2)Translate the following descriptions of one’s appearance from this text into Chinese.

He was of a powerful build… (Para. 1)

…a pale, square-jawed face with keen eyes, and a little white scar near his right eyebrow. (Para. 5)

Answers for reference:

他身材魁梧……(Para. 1)

……一张苍白的脸,方下巴,目光敏锐,右边眉毛附近有一道白色的细小伤疤。(Para. 5) Section C Comprehension Questions

▇Comprehension questions (Para. 1)

Q1: What was the policeman doing that night?

A1: He was on duty and was watchfully patrolling the avenue.

Q2: Did he look like a qualified policeman?

A2: Yes. He looked strong, which provides a good image of a policeman. In addition, while on the beat, he was very watchful, looking important and making a strong impression on anyone seeing him.

Q3: What does “a guardian of the peace” refer to?

A3: It refers to “a policeman”, who keeps the peace in the region.

▇Comprehension questions (Paras. 2-5)

Q1: Why did the policeman suddenly slow his walk?

A1: He saw a man standing in the doorway of a darkened hardware store. As a policeman, he was alert to anything or anybody suspicious. But, as we will find out later in the text, he probably slowed down because he also had in mind his appointment with Bob there.

Q2: Why did the man speak up to the policeman quickly?

A2: He was anxious to make it clear to the policeman that he was doing nothing bad there.

Q3: Why was the man there late that night?

A3:He was waiting for a friend with whom he had made an appointment 20 years before.

Q4: Did the policeman finally see the face of the man standing in the darkness? How?

A4: Yes. The man struck a match to light his cigar and the light showed his face.

▇Comprehension questions (Para. 6)

Q1: What is this paragraph about?

A1: The man talked about the friendship between himself and Jimmy Wells, with whom he had made the appointment.

Q2: Why did the two friends part that night?

A2: Because the man was going to the West to make his fortune.

Q3: What did the man mean by saying “You couldn’t have dragged Jimmy out of New York; he thought it was the only place on earth”?

A3: Jimmy loved New York so much that he preferred to live nowhere else.

Q4: Why did they plan to meet again exactly twenty years from that date and time?

A4: Because they thought in 20 years’ time they could have their fortunes made and each of them ought to have their destiny worked out.

▇Comprehension questions (Paras. 7-9)

A1: Did the man have any idea what Jimmy was doing in New York?

Q1: No. They lost track of each other shortly after they parted.

A2: What do you think of the man as a friend?

Q2: Having traveled so far to keep the appointment, he must be a loyal and sincere friend.

A3: What did the man think of the West?

Q3: He thought it was big and wild.

A4: Did the man feel certain that his friend Jimmy would turn up and meet him there?

Q4: Yes. He was sure of it because he thought Jimmy Wells was the truest friend in the world.

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