英语句子结构分析

一.主语:主语(subject) 是一个句子的主题( theme),是句子所述说的主体。它的位置一般在一句之首。可用作主语的有单词、短语、从句乃至句子。

1.名词作主语。如:A tree has fallen across the road. (一棵树倒下横在路上。)

Little streams feed big rivers. ( 小河流入大江。)

2.代词用作主语。如:You’re not far wrong. (你差不多对了)。

He told a joke but it fell flat. (他说了个笑话,但没有引人发笑

3.数词用作主语。如:Three is enough. 三个就够了。

Four from seven leaves three. 7减4余3。

4.名词化的形容词用作主语。

The idle are forced to work. 懒汉被迫劳动。

Old and young marched side by side. 老少并肩而行。

5.副词用作主语。如:Now is the time. 现在是时候了。

Carefully does it. 小心就行。

6.名词化的介词作主语。如:The ups and downs of life must be taken as they come.

我们必须承受人生之沉浮。

7.不定式用作主语。如:To find your way can be a problem.你能否找到路可能是一个问题。

It would be nice to see him again.

如能见到他,那将是一件愉快的事。

8.动名词用作主语。如:Smoking is bad for you. 吸烟对你有害。

Watching a film is pleasure, making one is hard work.

看电影是乐事,制作影片则是苦事。

9.名词化的过去分词用作主语。如:The disabled are to receive more money.

残疾人将得到更多的救济金。

The deceased died of old age.

死者死于年老。

10. 介词短语用作主语。如:To Beijing is not very far. 到北京不很远。From Yenan to Nanniwan was a three-hour ride on horseback.

从延安到南泥湾要三个小时。

11.从句用作主语。如: Whenever you are ready will be fine.

你无论什么时候准备好都行。

Because Sally wants to leave doesn’t mean that we have to.

不能说萨利要走因而我们也得走。

12.句子用作主语。如:”How do you do ?” is a greeting.“你好”是一句问候语。

二.谓语

谓语(predicate) 或谓语动词(predicate verb) 的位置一般在主语之后。谓语由简单动词或动词短语(助动词或情态动词+主要动词)构成。

1.由简单的动词构成。

(1). What happened? 发生了什么事?

(2). He worked hard all day today. 他今天苦干了一天。

(3). The plane took off at ten o’clock. 飞机是十点起飞的。

2.由动词短语构成的谓语。

(1). I am reading. 我在看书。

(2). What’s been keeping you all this time? 这半天你在干什么来着?

(3). You can do it if you try hard. 你努力就可以做到。

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