Unit 10 Vocabulary Learning
Aims and Objectives
This unit deals with strategies and skills of vocabulary learning. It aims
1. to give learners a general vocabulary knowledge;
2. to show how to expand vocabulary through means of word formation;
3. to show how to develop vocabulary power by means of types of meaning;
4. to provide L2 learners with a variety of strategies and skills of developing vocabulary to
L2 learners;
5. to show autonomous learners ways to acquire vocabulary competence.
1. (4) Know the pronunciation of the word
(5) Know the spelling of the word
(6) Know its collocations
(7) Know its stylistic features
(8) Know its positive and negative associations
2. 1) (1) an average man 8000-10000
(2) a normal person unable to read 5000
(3) New York literacy standard 4000
(4) Milton said to have used 8000-14000
(5) Shakespeare said to have used 15000-24000
(6) a specially trained person 15000-250000
2) This part of task is to familiarize students with the method to measure their
3. There is no definite answer. The task is to raise students‘ awareness of their active
4. 1) heartbeat n (n + v) 心跳 record-breaking adj (n + v-ing) 创纪录的
chain-smoke v. (n + v-ing by removing –ing) 不间断抽烟
deadline n (adj + n) 期限 stockholder n (n + v-er) 股民
have-not n (v + adv) 穷人 dog-tired adj (n + v-ed) 疲劳不堪
lion-hearted adj (n + n-ed) 有胆识的outgoing adj (adv + v-ing) 开朗的
deaf-mute adj (adj + adj) 聋哑 moon walk n (n + v) 月上行走
homemade adj (n + v-ed) 家庭制作的 fire-proof adj (n + adj) 防火的
2.. twist-and-turn waist from the verb phrase twist and turn
ahead-of-schedule from the phrase ahead of schedule
take-home-pay from pay to take home
round-the-clock shop from round the clock
the jumping-on-a-chair-at-the-sight-of-a-mouse era from jump on a chair at the
sight of a mouse
These examples show that compounds are easy to make. You can often hyphenate a
phrase and use it as a word in informal situations. This makes compounding especially
5. 1) centre n & v 中心central adj 中心的centrally adv 中心地centralize v 集中
centralization n 集中 decentralize v 使……分散 decentralization n 分散
Each time a suffix is added to the previous form, a word of a different class is
created, but the meaning is modified. The difference lies mainly in grammatical
meaning. However, when the prefix is added, the new word remains the same in
part of speech, but shows a big difference in meaning.
2) Negative:
dis-: disobey, disable un-: unwilling, unhappy
il-: illegal, illegible in-: injustice, inability
non-: non-classical, non-smoker
anti-: anti-violence, anti-nuclear counter-: counter-strike, counter-espionage
pro-: pro-Marxist, pro-democratic mis-: mis-inform, mis-leading
Time and order:
pre-: pre-industrial, pre-determine
ex-: ex-te

acher, ex-president
Degree or size:
super-: super-modern, super-simplification
mini-: mini-crisis, mini-bus
3) hope: hopeful, hopefully, hopelessness
horror: horrify, horrification
nation: national, nationally, nationalize, nationalization
examine: examiner, examinee, examination
educate: educator, educatee, education, educational, educationally
1) home: (3) is its denotative meaning, and the rest are possible connotative meanings
man: (2) is its denotative meaning, and the rest are possible connotative meanings
2) dragon: In both cultures, dragon is an imaginary animal, but in English it has negative
connotations: murderous monster; but in Chinese culture, it brings all the positive
associations: prosperity, luck, royal power.
individualism: The denotation of the word is the same in both cultures, but it has a
positive overtone in English usually associated with .independence‘, .a characteristic
individual‘ and but has negative value in Chinese associated with .selfishness‘,
.indifferent to others‘ needs and opinions‘ etc.
dog: The denotation is the same, but dog dog has positive associations in English: a
faithful friend, a companion, a pet, assistant, etc; but in Chinese, it is usually negative:
harmful, ferocious, a help in bad deeds, a cat‘s paw; however, nowadays, the
connotations are changing with the growing interest in raising it as pet.
7. (1) steed: different in stylistic feature
(2) efficient: different in denotative meaning
(3) rebuked: different in usage: accuse sb of; rebuke sb for
(4) mature: different in collocation: ripe used with crops, fruit, etc.; mature with people
(5) notorious: different in emotive colouring: famous is positive, notorious negative
(6) skinny: different in emotive colouring: slender is positive, skinny negative
(7) forbidden: different in usage: forbid sb to do sth; prohibit sb from doing sth
(8) fines: different in stylistic features: penalties is formal; fines informal
8. 1) different indifferent
loyal disloyal
possible impossible
athletic non-athletic
regular irregular
capable incapable
willing unwilling
social asocial
2) rough sea calm hard exam easy
rough texture smooth hard chair soft
rough area quiet hard journey smooth
rough person gentle hard work light
rough calculation precise hard person easy-going
3) In the two pairs of sentences, old and tall are unmarked terms; they cover the
meaning of young and short respectively which are marked, but not vice versa.
9. 1) lawyer coat sunny
teacher jacket rainy
doctor trousers cloudy
engineer shirt fine
professional clothing weather
2) This sentence is vague because of using superordinate terms such as it is said,
destroyed, magnificent building, the city, recently, as each of the term or phrase can
have different interpretations. To improve the sentence, we need to replace the
superordinate terms with hyponyms:
I learn from last night’s

today’s evening new that Taizi Restaurant on Zhonghua
Road in Wuhan was burned down yesterday afternoon.
10. This task has no definite answer. By doing the task, students learn the technique.
11. human: relating to human beings
humane: behaving in a kind and thoughtful way so as not to make people or animals
imaginative: full of imagination
imaginary: not real or non-existent
stationary: (adj) not moving
stationery: (n) collective noun for paper, pen, envelope, ink, etc.
in front of: before
in the front of: in the front part of a particular place
further: used both for distance and more often for anything else
farther: used mainly for distance
in future: referring to indefinite time after now
in the future: referring to a definite period of time after now
historical: relating to history
historic: of historical importance
institute: a particular organization set up usually to do academic work
institution: a large, important organization such as a college, hospital or company
grounds: referring to the land or gardens around a school or a large house
ground: the surface of earth people walk on outside
basis: (abstract) the central or most important part of something
base: the lower part of an object or the foundation from which something else develops
compliment: (v & n) (say) something to show praise or admiration
complement: (v & n) (add) something to support or compensate
12. Students can have their own answers.
13. 1) never 2) little 3) conceivably
seldom a bit possibly
occasionally significantly perhaps
sometimes fairly hopefully
often a lot probably
usually enormously presumably
nearly always almost certainly
always doubtless
14. departure lounge 侯机厅 check-in-desk 检票台
security guard 保安 duty free 免税
departure board 飞机离港告示牌 hand luggage 手提行李
check in 办理托运 announcement 通告
runway 跑道 trolley 行李车
security check 安全检查 conveyor belt 传送带
boarding 登机 departure gate 登机口
boarding card 登机卡 on board 在机上
take off 起飞 landing 着陆
15. 1) lawyer: a general term
advocate: a lawyer who speaks in defence of another
solicitor: (BrE) a lawyer
counsel: one or more lawyers acting for one in a court of law
attorney: (AmE) a lawyer
jurist: a lawyer with a thorough knowledge of law
barrister: (BrE) a lawyer who has the right of speaking and arguing in the higher
courts of law
notary: an official who has the authority to act as an official witness to the signing
of papers, etc.
2) go to law sue (informal)
take…to court (informal) charge
accuse litigate (formal and technical)
16. (1) follows her around/about
(2) follow on
(3) easy to follow
(4) follow the crowd
(5) follow Larry‘s example
(6) follow their footsteps
(7) followed the US‘ lead
(8) follow your father‘s advice
(9) follow up on
(10) follow-up

followed suit
17. 1.. boil 煮 fry 炒
roast ..微波炉或火上..烤..烘 toast 烤..烘..面包..
grill ..烤架上..烤..肉.. bake 烤..面包..
deep-fry 炸 steam 蒸
stew 炖 simmer 炖..煨
broil 烧
2.. chop 砍、切 slice 切片
dice 切丁 carve ..把大东西..切成碎片
sift/sieve 滤水 whisk 搅打..蛋..
mix 搅拌 drain/strain 沥水
peel 削皮 grate 擦切
kneed 揉..面.. roll out 擀面
crush 压碎 mash 捣碎
squeeze 挤榨 skewer 串肉扦
sprinkle 撒 dip 蘸
spread 涂敷 snip 剪
18. There is no definite answer. Students have their own preference. In the first case, the
writer put down the English phrase with its Chinese equivalent, which proves effective
for elementary learners, and even for intermediate-advanced learners to deal with
specialized terms.
The second and the third are often used by intermediate-advanced learners for
vocabulary expansion. What is good about them is to collect all similar expressions
in one place and this makes it easy to remember. The third goes even further to gather
different expressions to convey the same idea or serve the same purpose. The expressions
are put in context, indicating their usages. This organization helps learners not only to
remember the expressions but their usages as well.
19. Memory research shows if you review what you have learned within 24 hours, you can
recall 75% or more. The longer the lapse of time after the initial input, the less you can
remember. But if you review regularly until after one month or longer, you will forget
less and less.
Home Assignment
1. The answer is open-ended. Students may come up with different numbers of what they
know about a word. It is to raise students‘ awareness of vocabulary knowledge.
2. The answer is negative. We know that a person‘s active vocabulary is about one-third or
two-thirds of their passive vocabulary. Active vocabulary consists of the words a person
can use in speaking and or writing. The fact that the person is familiar with all the words
only shows that s/he can recognize the words. S/he may not be able to use all of them.
3. Answers may vary from person to person. The major means of word formation are
affixation, compounding, conversion plus the minors ones: blending, clipping, acronymy,
back-formation, etc. It is generally agreed that affixation and compounding are the most
productive and most useful because they can help learners build new words on their own
and guess the meanings of new words in reading.
4. denotative meaning = conceptual meaning
collocational meaning = collocative meaning
affective meaning = emotive meaning
Of these meanings, grammatical meaning and denotative (conceptual) meaning are
fundamental and stable and all the rest are non-basic and unstable, as they are affected by
context. But they are all important. The appropriate use of words is often due to such
meanings. For example, in the

sentence .The girl is a lamb,‘ lamb is not used in its
conceptual or denotative meaning but connocative connotative or associative meaning,
showing the writer‘s attitude. The girl behaves like a lamb—obedient, gentle and perhaps
5. The table indicates that synonyms share a similar conceptual meaning, but may have
different collocations and usages. Most of the synonyms are not interchangeable.
6. The two pairs are not appropriate antonyms. Antonyms should be of the same intensity.
Both cold and affluent are stronger in sense than their opposites. Each should have a
different word as its antonym: cold—hot, warm—cool; poor—rich,
7. These are open questions, which would not have definite answers. The questions make
students think about vocabulary learning skills and strategies and help raise their
awareness that good strategies can improve the effect and efficiency of vocabulary
learning, and that strategies can be learned and can be created by individuals as well.