Unit 1 Text A
Ex. 1 Understanding the text
1、Because he is tired of listening to his father and he is not interested in grammar rules.
2、The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture are so marvelous and remarkable that they should be described at least in a brief account; however, what the student could do was only one single utterance :“whoa!” without any specific comment.
3、Because the schools fail to set high standards of language proficiency. They only teach a little grammar and less advanced vocabulary. And the younger teachers themselves have little knowledge of the vital structures of language.
4、Because teaching grammar is not an easy job and most of the students will easily get bored if it's not properly dealt with.
5、He familiarized his son with different parts of speech in a sentence and discussed their specific grammatical functions including how to use adverbs to describe verbs.
6、Because the son had never heard about the various names and functions of words in an English sentence before.
7、The author uses “road map^and “car”to describe grammar and vocabulary. Here/ road map"is considered as grammar and “car”as vo cabulary.
8、Since the subjunctive mood his son used is a fairly advanced grammar structu re, the interjection“whoa!’’reflects the tremendous pride the father had toward his son; it also reflects the author’s humor in using the word because it was once used by his student, though in two different situations and with two different feelings.
Ex.3 Words in use
1 .condense 2.exceed 3.deficit 《exposure 5.asset 6.adequate http://m.wendangku.net/doc/cb38656bcdbff121dd36a32d7375a417866fc1bf.htmlpetent 8.adjusting
Ex.4 Word building
?al/-ial: managerial/editorial/substance/survival/tradition/margin -cy :
consistency/accuracy/efficient -y : recovery/mi n istry/assemb 1 y
Ex.5 Word building
9.survival 10.tradition 11.consistency 12.efficient
Ex.6 Banked cloze
1-5: L C J A I6-10: O N E H F
Ex.7 Expressions in use
1 .feel obliged to 2.be serious about 3.run into 4.distinguish between 5.thrust upon 6.was allergic to 7.get lost 8.be attracted to 9.make sense lO.looked upon as
Ex.8 Structured writing
Some bookworms in my dormitory often spend hours reading their “Bible”，Practical English Grammar, and do a lot of exercises in that book , but I don't care about it at all. My assumption is since I have never learned Chinese grammar, what's the sense of learning English grammar? In fact，English grammar has always been a big headache to me.
English grammar is very complicated because, unlike Chinese, there are many verb tenses. Even stranger than verb tenses, English grammar also contains something very confusing. For example, I don't remember how many times my middle school tea cher tried to“impose’’the differences between used to and be used to on us. Sometimes he would go on with the explanation for 20 minutes or so. He even summarized the differences by listing three or four points for us to memorize. However, they could never stay in my head. I don’t remember how many times I got it wrong with the sentences containing used to or be used to on my exams . I was really confused with these two phrases,and I can never get them right.
In brief, I’m allergic to learning English gramm ar. Curiously, I just wonder if the native speakers of English have a microcomputer in their brain to help them utter the two phrases promptly with just a click of their brain mouse!
Ex.9 E-C Translation
Ex. 10 C-E Translation
Chinese calligraphy is a unique art and the unique art treasure in the world. The formation and development of the Chinese calligraphy is closely related to the emergence and evolution of Chinese characters. In this long evolutionary process, Chinese characters have not only played an important role in exchanging ideas and transmitting culture but also developed into a unique art form. Calligraphic works well reflect calligra phers’ personal feelings, knowledge, self-cultivation, personality, and
Watch your step if you go out or you might fall.
1.There is nothing more important than being honest with everyone at school and at work.
strategic sympathetic confirmation location reflection provision installation
registration quote sympathize criticize industrialize 5
6 sympathetic 8 location 9
reflection 10 industrialize 11 provision 12 registration 1 sympathize
I M 2D 6L 713H
2.There is nothing more than helpful than using the Internet to improve my English skills.
3.There is nothing more than encouraging and stimulating than communicating successfully with your colleagues. Collocation：
1. seemingly free
2. barely enough
3. easily accessible
9.emotionally crippled 8
1. financial distress
8.artificial sense 9.truly autonomous Incompletely charmed 11 .staggeringly expensive 12.buying decisions
Unit6 Section A
IB 2C 3A 4E 5D 2
1An irrational behavior can be described as an action or opinion not based on adequate use of logic and reason:
Be willing to pay much more for a cup of Starbucks coffee when there's cheaper，equally good coffee across the street.
Once a price is established in their minds, they will compare other similar items to this price, not only for the current but also for the future.
Buy products they don’t need just because they get something for free in the transaction.
Do something just because some other people are doing the same thing.
2Ignorance - People can be totally unaware about a situation, yet form their own views and judgments. They often tend to jump to conclusions based on rumors.
Emotions - People take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and harbor unrealistic expectations.
Stress - It is the main reason that causes physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feeling of anger, irritation and frustration.
Blind beliefs - People live entirely on the lines that are drawn by others and do not have their own point of view. They are too conscious about society and its reactions to them.
3Yes, I'm often irrational because of different kinds of stress, uncertainty about my future, and sensitivity to how people look at me.
No, 1 don’t think I’m irrational because I always use my logic and common sense to judge things and react to what has happene d to me.
As the most intelligent animal on this earth，we are supposed to behave in a rational way, i.e., act according to logic and reason required in a situation. But does that really happen? Do we always behave rationally? Certainly not. There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. Irrational behavior is part of human nature, but as MIT Professor Ariely has discovered, people tend to behave irrationally in a predictable fashion. Though we cannot explain the exact cause behind irrational behavior, we know that it is a manner of behavior not based on logic and reasoning. I would like to give you an example of irrational behavior. If a person has heard about someone suffering from some disease, he will start thinking that he may suffer from the same disease. This is irrational and illogical behavio r. I don’t think this behavior is always intentional.
Reading comprehension Understanding the text 1
1He was imposing on his iroops a necessary sacrifice to achieve victory over their opponents. By doing this, the soldiers would be more determined and concentrated on the battles.
2The purpose for the experiment is to investigate seemingly irrational human behavior when making a decision, such as the tendency for keeping multiple options open.
3The experiment enabled people to see why it’s always so hard for th em to say "NO" to any opportunities that came to them. In everyday life, people just give excuses to keep options open.
4Students should quickly check all the doors and keep clicking on the one with the highest cash. They should absolutely ignore the vanishing doors.
5Because we can see that the students didn’t really focus on ensuring future cash earnings. What they tried to avoid was the i mmediate pain of watching options close.
6Because in life the doors are closing slowly, not like the ones on the computer in the experiment, people don't really see the opportunities actually vanishing away little by little.
7He suggests that people should prohibit overbooking, reduce options, delegate tasks to others, and even give away ideas to others to pursue.
8People can obtain pleasure and satisfaction by focusing their energy and attention in a more concentrated fashion. They will have more with fewer, carefully chosen options.
Critical thinking 2
I ?Surprising but very strategic and visionary.
?Reflection of his unique foresight and wisdom.
?Knowledgeable about winning battles.
?Experienced in fighting with enemies.
2?Interesting and thought-provoking.
?Reflect students' mentality.
?Meaningful and valid.
?May not he convincing to some people.
3?Both consequences are surprising.
?Both are about choices and decision-making.
?Both have to do with strategies.
?Both focus on human's mentality.
4?Afraid of losing potential opportunities.
?Too greedy and too ambitious.
?Over-confident about their real capacity.
?More choices, better chances.
5?Fewer options, more focused concentration.
?Fewer choices, better quality.
?Everything has two sides.
?Too much greed ends up with nothing.
I implement 2 rival 3 motivating 4 discarded 5 fluctuating
6prejudiced 7 restore 8 enlightening 9 profit 10 investigate Word building
Words learned New words formed -ic
Expressions in use 7
I was attached to 2 be measured in 3 come in handy 4 clinging to 5 pay a big price 6 are exhausted from 7 imposed on 8 revolve around Structure analysis
and writing Structured writing 8
There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. It’s hard to analyze the exact causes behind irrational behavior, but we know that it is a manner of behavior that is not based on logic and reasoning. Irrational behavior is caused by various factors but two stand oul.
The first main factor that contributes to irrational behavior is uncontrolled emotions. Irrational people take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and express exaggerated emotions such as crying and shouting. They have unrealistic expectations, expecting everyone to like them and if someone does not, they feel angry and neglected. It is fairly common for people to show such signs of irrationality.
Too much stress can also lead to irrational behavior. In fact, these days, stress is the major cause of physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feelings of anger, irritation and frustration. For instance, when you spend a stressful day in the office, il makes you anxious. You start releasing your frustration or stress by screaming at your family members for small reasons like a badly prepared meal. That day you feel everything is wrong.
In summary, uncontrolled emotions and too much stress can result in irrational behavior. To behave rationally is not an easy job because the behavior is internalized. However, to discover the source of your irrationality will help you behave more rationally.
National Happiness Index (NHI) is an index that measures how happy people are. It is also a tool that measures the levels of economic development and people's livelihood and happiness in a country or region. With the fast growth of Chinese economy, the Chinese government has been paying more and more attention to people's living quality and the increase of happiness index. The government stresses improvement of its people's livelihood, striving to improve their economic conditions and meet their growing material and cultural needs. Currently, the Chinese government advocates the unleashing of more reform dividends, with the aim of offering more real benefits to its people. All these measures will combine to effectively increase the NHI of our people.
Unit 6 Text B
Understanding the text 2
l. C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.D 6.B 7.A 8.D
Critical thinking 3
1.Like to look good in other’s eyes.
Tend to have spending habit
Make them feel happy.
Want to be in fashion
3.Don’t know which option they want most.
Seem to them there is never the best option.
Want everything lest they miss a “perfect” one.
4.Human beings are greedy by nature.
Many believe “The more, the better”.
Most people are too materialistic.
5.Not really a good thing.
Make people greedier and more materialistic.
Make people exhausted to make decisions.
Words in use 4
9.penetrating lO.subtract Expressions in use 5
1. played a role
3.are depressed about
4. settle for
5. rushed into
6. out of control
Sentence structure 6
1.The more carefully he thought about it, the clearer it became to him that this was a job for someone with experience.
2.The more exercise you do, the more energetic you will become, the easier your everyday tasks will seem.
3.The more interesting the plot is，the more appealing the film will become to the audience.
Sentence structure 7
1.He is normally a quiet person, but when it comes to sports, he becomes a completely different man.
2.When it comes to computers and the Internet, all the students become excited, each eager to say something about his experience.
3. A Frenchman may be ready to start a chat with a stranger on a train or in a cafe, but when it comes to friendship, the French seem to be more cautious than the British.
1. conscious effort
4. remotest idea
6.primary role Collocation 9
1. rival options
4.winning strategy 6.predictably irrational 7.temporary pain http://m.wendangku.net/doc/cb38656bcdbff121dd36a32d7375a417866fc1bf.htmlplex decision
9. limited choices 10.conscious effort II .naturally prejudiced 12.accumulating evidence
Unit 7 Text B Reading skills: 1
l. C 2.B 3.B 4.A
Understanding the text 2
1 ? interference
6. 1.B2. G 3. L
l. D 2.C 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.B 8.C
Critical thinking 3 1.
^Similarities: family-oriented, busy with house chores, cook meals, take care of children, clean rooms ，do laundry 2.
Y H c \p and support the husband ^education and behave children morally *Maintain the order of home. * Keep the family healthy 3.
*the husband: The man is supposed to have more responsibilities for his family since he physically stronger than his wife. *The wife: the woman, to some degree, is more persevered in overcoming difficulties and she is always family-oriented. ：!：Both: Even though they share different family responsibilities, they both play important and indispensable poles as parents, husband or wife. Two incomes are always better than just one. 4.
* Advantages: able to take good care of family, including their diet and health; more communication with family; help children with their schoolwork. ^Disadvantages: a lot of stress, exhausted, less aware of the outside world, lose social contact. 5.
-Work outside: have many contacts, communication with more people ，be informed of the outside world, be of more help financially. *Stay home: take better care of family, pay more attention to children, provide healthier food to family, keep the rooms clean, help the husband / wife. Words in use 4 1. bounced 2. tolerate 3.supplement 4.condemn 5.overflowed 6.
swear 7.resemble http://m.wendangku.net/doc/cb38656bcdbff121dd36a32d7375a417866fc1bf.htmlpounded 9.disgusting lO.trim Expressions in use 5 1. convert to 2. was revolted by 3. was comprised of 4. busied himself with 5. fussed over 6. is unique in 7. exerting themselves 8. substituted for Sentence structure 6 1.
Having no idea about their thoughts and opinion ，1 would rather five up the attempt to guess what their reaction will be. 2. To avoid making mistakes, I would rather be home alone and not communicate with anybody. 3.
The old man would rather be living in the past, for things are much more different today than they were in the past. Sentence structure 7 1 ? I couldn’t stand bad man ners and thought my leaving was anything but rude, so I got the nest train back home and left him there.
2. They usually look very nice and even generous, but in terms of integrity, they are anything but honest.
3. When the two young people got married, may people attended the wedding ceremony, yet it was anything but modern. Warm-up
1. strong urge
2. Particularly difficult
3. Demanding job
4. make concessions
5. Social context
6. Management style 8.
6. Strong 7 subtle 8 conflicting 9 personal 10 typically 11 diplomatically 12 vaguely
Unit 8 Section A understanding the text:
1. He became a children's doctor because of this love for children and his strong desire to keep them healthy.
2. He is thought of having no moral compass: He tortures innocent animals for his career advancement and his experiments having nothing to do with medicine.
3. The public barely watches, convinced that the issue has no significance to them, while the senator and politicians continue to give way to the lobbying of animal rights activists
4. The author does not really admit their mistake, but the tone is apparently ironic, criticizing that the physicians were too soft to respond to the animal rights activists.
5. Life is cruel to both animals and human beings . if the physician don't create an animal model of the problem ，they have to do experiments on human beings ，or the medical knowledge will remain static.
6. Drugs to cure infection will remain undiscovered, surgical and diagnostic techniques will remain undeveloped, and fundamental biological processes will remain mysteries.
7. Because protection from serious sickness and drugs as well as most complex surgical procedures were initially developed in animals instead of human beings
8. If the more radical members of this movement are successful in threatening further research, their efforts will bring about a tragedy that will cost the lives of many human beings.
Language focus ： word in use 3.
9. imitate 10. evil
Words learned New words formed interference thriller scarce specific consumption deception invasion procession
4. procession 6. Deception 7. scarce 8. thrillers 4. K
5.F 9.E 10.1
1. persisted in
2. have relevance to
3. becoming aware of
4. isolated from
5. in the name of
6. make a contribution
7. been occupied with
8. tip the scales
世界自然基金会（WWF ）是一个致力于有关保护、研究和修复环境议题的国际性非政府组织。该组织最初于1961 年被命名为世界野生动物基金会。1986年，它更名为世界自然基金会，以更好地反映其活动范围。它是世界上最 大的、独立的自然保护组织，拥有lit 界各地超过500万的支持者，在100多个国家开展工作，并援助约1，300个与自 然和环境保护有关的项0。它的任务是阻止破坏地球的生态环境，建立一个能使人类与內然和谐相处的未来。0 前，其大部分工作都集中在对海洋和海岸、森林、淡水的保护。在其他问题上，它也关注濒危物种，污染和气候 变化。现在他们最需要的是资金，以M 行其使命和处理与自然保护有关的突发事件。
Since the founding of New China ，especially since the economic reform and door-opening to the world, the Chinese government has made considerable efforts in eco-environmental protection and achieved effective progress. The government has taken a series of important measures to protect and improve the ecological environment, such as actively promoting key ecological projects, enhancing ecosystem construction and biodiversity conservations, establishing a number of nature reservation ，ecological demonstration zones, scenic spots and forest parks. One of the important goals of building a socialist harmonious society is to strengthen ecological protection and construction and to achieve harmony between man and nature. Environmental protection and ecological civilization construction have provided a solid foundation for the sustainable development of China’s economy and society.
Unit 8 section B Ex. 2 understanding the text:
1D 2A 3C 4C 5D 6 B 7 D 8 C Ex.4 words in use
9 discharged 10 rotated
Ex .5 expressions in use
I out 2 with 3 in 4 between 5 from 6 of 7 with 8 over
Sentence structure Ex.8
People with sleeping disorder cannot sleep much , as is the case with the people who get older
2. The new irrigation system would require farmers to apply for a planning permission, as is the case with other commercial or industrial developments.
1 severely restricted
We have seen encouraging signs of improvement in our financial conditions ，as is the case with the overall economy according to the media reports
Ex. 7 1.
As enthusiastic and curious about it as he was at the start of his career.
2. As interested in these questions as he was when he first read them online.
3. As attentive toward his wife or children as she had expected.
2 terrifying effects
3 subsequent advances so forth, thus the re is an expression that “seeing the calligrapher’s handwriting is like seeing the person”. As one of the treasures of Chines e culture, Chinese calligraphy shines splendidly in the world's treasure house of culture and art. Unit 1 Text B
2. Understanding the text
D. 2. A 3.C 4. A 5.C 6. B 7. C 8. D
4. Words in use
mysterious 2. desperate 3. devise 4. negotiate 5. recalled 6. specifically 7. depict 8. Ignorance 9. Expand 10 confusion
5. Expressions in use
apply to 2. in a bid to 3. end up
4. speaking of
5. get hold of
6. appealed to
7. leaving ..behind
8. focus on EX. 6 Sentence structure
even though it is important of the students to have a deep understanding of the texts, it doesn't make any sense to read texts word for word from the beginning to the end
as it is a matter of little importance to us, it doesn’t make much sense to argue out which is wrong or right or which is better or wors e
it makes no sense to compel children to obey their parents; instead, we should try to tell them what is right and what is wrong. EX. 7.
II might as well have stayed at home.
We might as well have taken the train home So he might as well have told me all about it.
C o l l o c
a t i o n : Warm-up essential framework 2. distinctive difference 3 high standards 4 valuable possessions 5 considerable frustration 6 acquire knowledge
7 overcome deficiencies 8 sketch thoughts
9 devise a scheme Ex. 8
1 essential framework
2 proper vocabulary
3 excellent control
4 language deficit
5 high standards
6 language proficiency
7 acquire knowledge
8 competent communication
9 overcome deficiencies 10 sketch thoughts 11 effective communication 12 advanced vocabulary
Unit 2 Text A Reading Comprehension
1. Because English or history majors are considered less competitive when the job market is shrinking and they have to study something that can help them more easily locate their future jobs.
2. Because as the tuition is climbing higher and higher, many students have run away from studying the humanities and toward “hard” skills that they think will lead to employment.
3. since more students are now taking job-oriented courses, libraries, where students of liberal arts used to study, are getting less popular than before; in contrast, labs are getting more eye-catching because students of science and engineering do experiments and research there.
Because this inner drive that can be either constructive or destructive is so mysterious and powerful that it has attracted m any people to speculate on it. From ancient times, these men and women developed artistic “languages” in the form of story, music, myth, painting, architecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions, which from the very foundation of civilization. 5. Studying the humanities improves your ability to read and write, makes you familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process, and, more importantly, provides you with a wide scope of possibilities that are open to you. 6. Because in modem life, an ideal capacity for establishing one’s career is to have both technical knowledge and inner insight, not just one without the other. 7. “Well -rounded human beings” are those who have insight and understand the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity.
8. Since many people who once studied the humanities became famous in their career, the author implies that if students spend more time studying the humanities, they could surely become successful in the future as well. Language focus 3
9. destruction 10. prospect 4. speculate about 5. invested...with
6. stand up for
7. in the form of
8. prepared for 9. in the company of
10 in succession
9 幕课是一种网络课程，它旨在通过M 络实现广泛参与和开放接入。幕课是远程教育迈出的最新一步，现己在高等 教育领Promising
Intensify Bearing Exclude Identity Housing Excess Objective Execute
2. bearing 7. exclude
3. objective 8. identity
4. intensify 9 offend
5. execute 10. housing
6-10 LMGFA 7
1. are liable to
2. in favor of
k is bound to