AIX 常用命令及功能一览表

AIX 常用命令及功能一览表

下面是常用的一些命令的语法以及功能描述:

oslevel Returns operating system level

whence (program) Returns full path of program

whereis (program) Returms full path of program

lslpp -L all list all installed software

lslpp -L (program set name) Check if software installed

lslpp -f Lists filesets vs packages

instfix -ik (fix number eg IX66617) Checks id fix is installed

compress -c file.txt > file.Z Create a compressed file.

uuencode (infile) (extract-file-name) > (output file)

Converts a binary file to an ASCII file for transfer by modem or email uudecode (encoded file)

Extracts a binary file from encoded file and calls it the extract-file-name examples :-

uuencode maymap maymap > maymap.enc

uuencode maymap.enc

od -c /tmp Displays contents of the /tmp directory file

ls -i Lists files with their inode numbers

echo * Lists files, can be used if ls is corrupt/missing

alog -o -t boot V iew the boot log

chtz (timezone eg GMT0BST) Changes the timezone in /etc/environment file chlang (language eg En_GB) Changes the language in /etc/environment file ar -v -t /usr/lib/libC-r.a Lists all objects in libC_r.a library

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TERMINALS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

tty Displays what the tty/pty number of the terminal is.

termdef reports the termtype setup in smit for the tty port

that termdef is run on.

chdev -l (device eg tty1) -a term=vt100 Sets tty to a vt100 terminal type penable tty0 adds getty line into /etc/inittab for tty0 and starts getty pdisable tty0 disables the getty line and disables getty

penable / pdisable -a option is for all

stty erase ^? Set backspace key for vt100 terminals

stty erase ^H Set backspace key for wyse50 terminals

lscons Displays the console device

chcons -a login=enable (device eg /dev/tty1) Changes the console device Create ttys on ports 0 to 7 on adapter sa2 :-

for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

do

mkdev -c tty1 -t tty -s rs232 -p sa2 -w$i -a login=enable -a term=vt100

done

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NETWORK

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

host (ip or hostname) Resolves a hostname / ip address

hostname Displays hostname

hostname (hostname) Sets the hostname until next reboot

chdev -l (device name) -a hostname=(hostname) Changes hostname permanently chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=thomas

ifconfig (device name) Displays network card settings

ifconfig (device name) up Turns on network card

ifconfig (device name) down Turns off network card

ifconfig (device name) detach Removes the network card from the

network interface list

ifconfig en0 inet 194.35.52.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

ifconfig lo0 alias 195.60.60.1 Create alias ip address for loopback

route (add/delete) (-net/-host) (destination) (gateway)

Adds or deletes routes to other networks or hosts, does not update

the ODM database and will be lost at reboot.

route add -net 194.60.89.0 194.60.90.4

netstat -i Displays interface statistics

entstat -d (ethernet adapter eg en0) Displays ethernet statistics

arp -a Displays ip to mac address table from arp cache

no -a Displays network options use -o to set individual options or

-d to set individual options to default.

no -o option=value (this value is reset at reboot)

no -o "ipforwarding=1"

traceroute (name or ipaddress) Displays all the hops from source to destination supplied.

ping -R (name or ipaddress) Same as traceroute except repeats.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

N.F.S.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

exportfs Lists all exported filesystems

exportfs -a Exports all fs's in /etc/exports file

exportfs -u (filesystem) Un-exports a filesystem

mknfs Configures and starts NFS services

rmnfs Stops and un-configures NFS services

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BACKUPS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MKSYSB

------

mkszfile -f Creates /image.data file (4.x onwards)

mkszfile -X Creates /fs.size file (3.x)

mksysb (device eg /dev/rmt0)

CPIO ARCHIVE

------------

find (filesystem) -print ?cpio -ocv > (filename or device)

eg find ./usr/ -print ?cpio -ocv > /dev/rmt0

CPIO RESTORE

------------

cpio -ict < (filename or device) ?more Lists archive

cpio -icdv < (filename or device)

cpio -icdv < (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")

eg cpio -icdv < /dev/rmt0 "tcpip/*" Restore directory and contents cpio -icdv < /dev/rmt0 "*resolve.conf" Restore a named file

TAR ARCHIVE

-----------

tar -cvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to archive")

eg tar -cvf /dev/rmt0 "/usr/*"

TAR RESTORE

-----------

tar -tvf (filename or device) Lists archive

tar -xvf (filename or device) Restore all

tar -xvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")

use -p option for restoring with orginal permissions

eg tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 "tcpip" Restore directory and contents

tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 "tcpip/resolve.conf" Restore a named file

AIX ARCHIVE

-----------

find (filesystem) -print ?backup -iqvf (filename or device)

Backup by filename.

eg find /usr/ -print ?backup -iqvf /dev/rmt0

backup -(backup level 0 to 9) -f (filename or device) ("filesystem") Backup by inode.

eg backup -0 -f /dev/rmt0 "/usr" -u option updates /etc/dumpdates file AIX RESTORE

-----------

restore -qTvf (filename or device) Lists archive

restore -qvxf (filename or device) Restores all

restore -qvxf (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore") (use -d for restore directories)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Copying diskettes and tape

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- COPYING DISKETTES

-----------------

dd if=/dev/fd0 of=(filename) bs=36b

dd if=(filename) of=/dev/fd0 bs=36b conv=sync or flcopy

COPYING TAPES

-------------

dd if=/dev/rmt0 of=(filename)

dd if=(filename) of=/dev/rmt0 or tcopy

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

VI Commands

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

:g/xxx/s//yyy/ global change where xxx is to be changed by yyy

sed 's(ctrl v ctrl m)g//g' old.filename > new.filename

Strips out ^M characters from ascii files that have been transferred as binary. To enter crontrol characters type ctrl v then ctrl ? where ? is whatever

ctrl character you need.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DEVICES

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

lscfg lists all installed devices

lscfg -v lists all installed devices in detail

lscfg -vl (device name) lists device details

bootinfo -T reports type of machine ie rspc

bootinfo -r reports amount of memory (/ by 1024)

bootinfo -s (disk device) reports size of disk drive

mknod (device) c (major no) (minor no) Creates a /dev/ device file.

mknod /dev/null1 c 2 3

lsdev -C lists all customised devices ie installed

lsdev -P lists all pre-defined devices ie supported

lsdev -(C or P) -c (class) -t (type) -s (subtype)

chdev -l (device) -a (attribute)=(new value) Change a device attribute chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=80

lsattr -EH -l (device) -D Lists the defaults in the pre-defined db

lsattr -EH -l sys0 -a modelname

rmdev -l (device) Change device state from available to defined

rmdev -l (device) -d Delete the device

rmdev -l (device) -SR S stops device, R unconfigures child devices lsresource -l (device) Displays bus resource attributes of a device.

Power Management (PCI machines)

-------------------------------

pmctrl -a Displays the Power Management state

rmdev -l pmc0 Unconfigure Power Management

mkdev -l pmc0 Configuter Power Management

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TAPE DRIVES

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

rmt0.x where x = A + B + C

A = density 0 = high 4 = low

B = retension 0 = no 2 = yes

C = rewind 0 = no 1 = yes

tctl -f (tape device) fsf (No) Skips forward (No) tape markers

tctl -f (tape device) bsf (No) Skips back (No) tape markers

tctl -f (tape device) rewind Rewind the tape

tctl -f (tape device) offline Eject the tape

tctl -f (tape device) status Show status of tape drive

chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 changes block size to 512 bytes

(4mm = 1024, 8mm = variable but

1024 recommended)

bootinfo -e answer of 1 = machine can boot from a tape drive answer of 0 = machine CANNOT boot from tape drive

diag -c -d (tape device) Hardware reset a tape drive.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PRINT QUEUES

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- export $LPDEST="pqname" Set default printer queue for login session lsvirprt Lists/changes virtual printer attributes.

qpri -#(job No) -a(new priority) Change a queue job priority.

qhld -#(job No) Put a hold on hold

qhld -r #(job No) Release a held job

qchk -A Status of jobs in queues

lpstat

qcan -x (job No) Cancel a job from a queue

cancel (job No)

enq -U -P(queue) Enable a queue

enable (queue)

enq -D -P(queue) Disable a queue

disable (queue)

qmov -m(new queue) -#(job No) Move a job to another queue startsrc -s qdaemon Start qdaemon sub-system

lssrc -s qdaemon List status of qdaemon sub-system

stop -s qdaemon Stop qdaemon sub-system

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FILE SYSTEMS

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Physical V olumes (PV's)

-----------------------

lspv Lists all physical volumes (hard disks)

lspv (pv) Lists the physical volume details

lspv -l (pv) Lists the logical volumes on the physical volume

lspv -p (pv) Lists the physical partition usage for that PV

chdev -l (pv) -a pv=yes Makes a new hdisk a pysical volume.

chpv -v r (pv) Removes a disk from the system.

chpv -v a (pv) Adds the removed disk back into the system.

chpv -a y (pv) Changes pv allocatable state to YES

chpv -a n (pv) Changes pv allocatable state to NO

migratepv (old pv) (new pv) Moves all LV's from one PV to another PV, both PV's must be in the same volume group.

V olume Groups (VG's)

--------------------

lsvg Lists all volume groups

lsvg (vg) Lists the volume group details

lsvg -l (vg) Lists all logical volumes in the volume group

lsvg -p (vg) Lists all physical volumes in the volume group

lsvg -o Lists all varied on volume groups

varyonvg (vg) V ary On a volume group

varyonvg -f (vg) Forces the varyon process

varyonvg -s (vg) V ary on a VG in maintenance mode. LV commands can be used on VG, but LV,s cannot be opened for I/O.

varyoffvg (vg) V ary Off a volume group

synclvodm (vg) Tries to resync VGDA, LV control blocks and ODM.

mkvg -y(vg) -s(PP size) (pv) Create a volume group

mkvg -y datavg -s 4 hdisk1

reducevg -d (vg) (pv) Removes a volume group

reducevg (vg) (PVID) Removes the PVID disk reference from the VGDA when a disk has vanished without the reducevg (vg) (pv)

command being run first.

extendvg (vg) (new pv) Adds another PV into a VG.

exportvg (vg) Exports the volume group eg deletes it!

Note : Cannot export a VG if it has active paging space, turn off paging,

reboot before exporting VG. Exporting removes entries from filesystems

file but does not remove the mount points.

chvg -a y (vg) Auto V ary On a volume group at system start.

lqueryvg -Atp (pv) Details volume group info for the hard disk.

importvg -y (vg name) (pv) Import a volume group from a disk.

importvg (pv) Same as above but VG will be called vg00 etc.

chvg -Q (y/n) (vg name) Turns on/off Quorum checking on a vg.

Logical V olumes (LV's)

----------------------

lslv (lv) Lists the logical volume details

lslv -l (lv) Lists the physical volume which the LV is on

mklv (vg) (No of PP's) (pv Name optional) Create a logical volume

mklv -y (lv) (PP's) (pv name optional) Creates a named logical volume

chlv -n (new lv) (old lv) Rename a logical volume

extendlv (lv) (extra No of PP's) Increase the size of an LV

rmlv (lv) Remove a logical volume

mklv/extendlv -a = PP alocation policy

-am = middle -ac = center -ae = edge

-aie = inner edge -aim = inner middle

migratepv -l (lv) (old pv) (new pv)

Move a logical volume between physical volumes. Both physical volumes must be in the same volume group !

mklv -y (lv) -t jfslog (vg) (No of PP's) (pv Name optional)

Creates a JFSlog logical volume.

logform (/dev/lv) Initialises an LV for use as an JFSlog

File Systems (FS's)

-------------------

lsfs Lists all filesystems

lsfs -q (fs) Lists the file system details

mount Lists all the mounted filesystems

mount (fs or lv) Mounts a named filesystem

mount -a Mounts all filesystems

mount all

mount -r -v cdrfs /dev/cd0 /cdrom mounts cd0 drive over /cdrom

crfs -v jfs -d(lv) -m(mount point) -A yes

Will create a file system on the whole of the logical volume, adds entry into

/etc/filesystems and will create mount point directory if it does not exist.

crfs -v jfs -g(vg) -m(mount point) -a size=(size of fs) -A yes

Will create a logical volume on the volume group and create the file system on the logical volume. All at the size stated. Will add entry into

/etc/filesystems and will create the mount point directory if it does not exist. chfs -A yes (fs) Change file system to Auto mount in

/etc/filesystems

chfs -a size=(new fs size)(fs) Change file system size

rmfs (fs) Removes the file system and will also remove the

LV if there are no onther file systems on it.

defrag -q (fs) Reports the fragment status of the file system.

defragfs -r (fs) Runs in report only defrag mode (no action).

defragfs (fs) Defragments a file system.

fsck (fs) V erify a file system, the file system must be unmounted!

fsck (-y or -n) (fs) Pre-answer questions either yes or no !

fsck -p (fs) Will restore primary superblock from backup copy if the superblock is corrupt.

Mirroring

---------

mklv -y (lv) -c(copies 2 or 3) (vg) (No of PP's) (PV Name optional)

Creates a mirrored named logical volume.

mklvcopy -s n (lv) (copies 2 or 3) (pv)

Creates a copy of a logical volume onto another physical volume. The physical

volume MUST be in the same volume group as the orginal logical volume ! rmlvcopy (lv) (copies 1 or 2) Removes logical volume copies.

syncvg -p (pv) Synchronize logical partion copies

syncvg -l (lv)

syncvg -v (vg)

mirrorvg (vg) (pv)

Mirrors the all the logical volumes in a volume group onto a new physical volume. New physical volume must already be part of the volume group.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BOOT LOGICAL VOLUME (BLV)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

bootlist -m (normal or service) -o displays bootlist

bootlist -m (normal or service) (list of devices) change bootlist

bootinfo -b Identifies the bootable disk

bootinfo -t Specifies type of boot

bosboot -a -d (/dev/pv) Creates a complete boot image on a physical volume. mkboot -c -d (/dev/pv) Zero's out the boot records on the physical volume. savebase -d (/dev/pv) Saves customised ODM info onto the boot device.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SYSTEM DUMP

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- sysdumpdev -l Lists current dump destination.

sysdumpdev -e Estimates dumpsize of the current system in bytes. sysdumpdev -L Displays information about the previous dump. sysdumpstart -p Starts a dump and writes to the primary dump device. sysdumpstart -s Starts a dump and writes to the secondary dump device. sysdumpdev -p (dump device) -P Sets the default dump device, permanently Analyse dump file :-

echo "stat\n status\n t -m" ?crash /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PAGING SPACE (PS's)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

lsps -a Lists out all paging space

lsps (ps)

mkps -s(No of 4M blocks) -n -a (vg)

mkps -s(No of 4M blocks) -n -a (vg) (pv)

chps -a n (ps) Turns off paging space.

chps -s(No of 4M blocks) (ps) Increases paging space.

chlv -n (new name) (old name) Change paging space name

rmps (ps) Remove paging space. PS must have been turned off

and then the system rebooted before it can be removed.

Note : Need to change the swapon entry in /sbin/rc.boot script if you are changing the default paging space from /dev/hd6. Y ou also need to

do a "bosboot -a -d /dev/hdiskx" before the reboot.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCHEDULING

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- crontab -l List out crontab entrys

crontab -e Edit crontab entrys

crontab -l > (filename) Output crontab entrys to a file

crontab (filename) Enter a crontab from a file

crontab -r Removes all crontab entrys

crontab -v Displays crontab submission time.

/var/adm/cron/cron.allow File containing users allowed crontab use. /var/adm/cron/cron.deny File containing users denied crontab use. /var/adm/cron/crontab Directory containing users crontab entries. at (now + 2 minutes, 13:05, etc) {return} Schedule a job using at Command or schell script {return}

{CTRL D}

at -l

atq Lists out jobs scheduled to run via at command

at -r (at job No)

atrm (at job No) Removes an at job scheduled to run.

/var/adm/cron/at.allow File containing users allowed at use.

/var/adm/cron/at.deny File containing users denied at use.

/var/adm/cron/atjobs Directory containing users at entries.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SECURITY

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- groups Lists out the groups that the user is a member of setgroups Shows user and process groups

chmod abcd (filename) Changes files/directory permissions Where a is (4 SUID) + (2 SGID) + (1 SVTX)

b is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for owner

c is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for group

d is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for others

-rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx

Ζ?Ζ?Ζ?

- - -

???

Owner Group Others

-rwSrwxrwx = SUID -rwxrwSrwx = SGID drwxrwxrwt = SVTX chown (new owner) (filename) Changes file/directory owners chgrp (new group) (filename) Changes file/directory groups umask Displays umask settings

umask abc Changes users umask settings

where ( 7 - a = new file read permissions)

( 7 - b = new file write permissions)

( 7 - c = new file execute permissions)

eg umask 022 = new file permissions of 755 = read write and execute for owner read ----- and execute for group

read ----- and execute for other

mrgpwd > file.txt Creates a standard password file in file.txt

passwd Change current user password

passwd -f Change current users gecos (user description)

passwd -s Change current users shell

pwdadm (username) Change a users password

lsgroup ALL Lists all groups on the system

mkgroup (new group) Creates a group

chgroup (attribute) (group) Change a group attribute

rmgroup (group) Removes a group

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

USERS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

env Displays values of environment variables

printenv

id Displays current user's uid and gid details

id (user) Displays user uid and gid details

whoami Displays current user details

who am i (or who -m)

who Displays details of all users currently logged in.

w

uptime Displays number of users logged in, time since last

reboot, and the machine load averages.

lslicense Displays number of current user licensese

chlicense -u (number) Changes the number of user licenses

lsuser ALL Lists all users details

lsuser (username) Lists details for user

lsuser -a(attribute) (username or ALL) Lists user attributes

lsuser -a home ALL

mkuser -a(attributes) (newuser) Add a new user

chuser (attributes) (user) Change a user

chuser login=false (user) Lock a user account

rmuser -p (user) Removes a user and all entries in security files

usrck -t ALL Checks all the user entires are okay.

fuser -u (logical volume) Displays processes using the files in that LV

lsattr -D -l sys0 -a maxuproc Displays max number of processes per user chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=(number) Changes max number of processes per user --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

REMOTE USERS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ruser -a -f (user) Adds entry into /etc/ftpusers file

ruser -a -p (host) Adds entry into /etc/host.lpd file

ruser -a -r (host) Adds entry into /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -d -f (user) Deletes entry in /etc/ftpusers file

ruser -d -p (host) Deletes entry in /etc/host.lpd file

ruser -d -r (host) Deletes entry in /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -s -F Shows all entries in /etc/ftpusers file

ruser -s -P Shows all entries in /etc/host.lpd file

ruser -s -R Shows all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -X -F Deletes all entries in /etc/ftpusers file

ruser -X -P Deletes all entries in /etc/host.lpd file

ruser -X -R Deletes all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

INITTAB

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

telinit S Switches to single user mode.

telinit 2 Switches to multi user mode.

lsitab -a Lists all entries in inittab

lsitab (ident eg tty1) Lists the tty1 entry in inittab

mkitab ("details") Creates a new inittab entry

chitab ("details") Ammends an existing inittab entry

rmitab (ident eg tty1) Removes an inittab entry.

chitab "tty1:2:respawn:/usr/bin/getty /dev/tty1"

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ODM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

odmget -q "name=lp1" CuDv ?ore Gets lp1 info from pre-defined database. odmget -q "name-lp1" CuAt ?ore Gets lp1 info from customised database. odmdelete -o CuAt -q "name=lp1" Deletes lp1 info from customised db.

odmget -q "name=lp1" CuAt > lp1.CuAt Export ODM info to text file.

odmadd < lp1.CuAt Import ODM info from text file.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ERROR LOGGING

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/usr/lib/errdemon -l Displays errorlog attributes.

/usr/lib/errdemon Starts error logging.

/usr/lib/errstop Stops error logging.

errpt Displays summary errorlog report.

errpt -a Displays detailed errorlog report.

errpt -j (identifier) Displays singe errorlog report.

Note : errorlog classes are H=Hardware S=Software O=Information V=Undetermined errclear (days) Deletes all error classes in the errorlog.

errclear -d (class) (days) Deletes all error class entries in errlog.

Note : The errclear command will delete all entries older than the numbers of

days specified in the days paramenter. To delete ALL entries used 0.

errlogger "message up to 230 chrs"

Enters an operator notifaction message into the errorlog.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PERFORMANCE MONITORING

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

vmstat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports virtual memory statistics.

vmstat hdisk0 5 20

vmstat -s Diplays number of paging events since system start.

vmstat -f Diplays number of forks since system start.

vmstat -i Diplays number of interupts by device since system start.

iostat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports i/o and cpu statistics.

iostat hdisk0 5 20

iostat -d (drive) (interval) (count) Limits report to drive statistics.

iostat -t (interval) (count) Limits report to tty statistics.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DOS DISKETTES

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

dosdir Reads directory listing of a diskette

dosdir (directory) Reads directory listing of a named directory

dosread -D/dev/fd0 C41.TXT c41.txt Gets C41.TXT from diskette drive fd0 dosread -D/dev/fd0 DIRECTORY/C41.TXT c41.txt

(-D option can be dropped if using fd0)

doswrite -D/dev/fd0 (unixfile) (dosfile) Writes a file to diskette

dosdel (dosfile) Deletes a dos file on diskette

dosformat Formats the diskette

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SENDMAIL

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- sendmail -bi Creates new aliase db from /etc/aliase file.

newaliases

mailq Displays the contents of the mail queue

sendmail -q Processes the sendmail queue NOW

相关推荐
相关主题
热门推荐