新视野大学英语第三版第二册课文Journey through the odyssey years语法讲解-Unit3

新视野三版读写B2 U3 Text A

Journey through the odyssey years

1 Most of us know about the phases of life which we label to parallel different age groups and life stages: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old

age. We think of infancy before childhood and middle age before old age, with each unique phase bringing its own peculiar set of challenges. These challenges can be overcome by acquainting ourselves with them, such as the child's need to learn, the adult's need to find the right career and build a family, and the senior's need for support and good health care.

2 Interestingly, ideas about the stages of life are changing.

3 In previous times, people didn't have a solid idea of childhood as being separate from adulthood. A hundred years ago, no one thought of adolescence. Until recently it was understood as a norm that their induction to adulthood was completed as soon as they graduated from college. They would now find a sensible job which would lead to a career. Then during this career they would start a family, ideal y before they turned 30.

4 Today we have an equivalent need to recognize a new phase of life that comes after high school graduation, continues through college, and then leads

to starting a family and having a career, the so-cal ed odyssey years. Recent trends show radical changes as young people are fol owing a

different agenda. They take breaks from school, live with friends and often return to living with their parents. Similarly, they fall in and out of love, quit one job and try another or even shift to a new career. So, we need to recognize this new stage, the odyssey years, which many now consider to be an unavoidable stage in reaching adulthood.

5 People who were born prior to the 60s or 70s in the last century tended

to frame their concept of adulthood based upon achieving certain accomplishments: moving away from home, becoming financial y independent, finding the right spouse and starting a family. But that emphasis on stability did not remain static. Today, young people are unlikely to do the same. During the odyssey years, a high proportion of young people are delaying marriage, child bearing, and even employment.

6 The odyssey years can saddle young people with enormous pressure to

move forward quickly. As the sole heir and focus of their parents' expectations, hopes and dreams, some react with rebellious and prideful attitudes and

and keep a distance from their parents or even run away from home. Their confusion comes from the difficulties to make parents understand them and

the fluid journey of discovery they need in this phase of their lives. To get away from this confusion and upset, many young people resort to computer games, iPods, iPhones, or iPads, to help distract them from their pain and stress.

7 Likewise, their parents are feeling more anxious. They may

make allowances for a transition phase from student life to adult life, but they get upset when they see the transition of their grown children's lives moving away from their expectations and stretching five years to seven years, and beyond. The parents don't even detect a clear sense of direction in their children's lives. They look at them and see the things that are being delayed.

8 It's hard to predict what's next. New guidelines haven't been established yet, and everything seems to give way to a less permanent version of

itself. There's been a shift in the status and balance of power between the genders, too. More women are getting degrees than men. Male wages have remained stable over the past decades, while female wages have boomed.

9 Apart from anything else, this has had an implicit effect on

courtship. Educated women can get many of the things they want, such as security, accomplishment, and identity without marriage. However, both genders are having a harder time finding suitable mates to build their lives with. Considering all of this, it's beneficial to know that even though graduates are delaying many things after college, surveys show they still hold highly traditional aspirations. For example, this contemporary generation rates parenthood even more highly than previous generations did!

10 This new phase will likely grow more pronounced in the coming

years. Nations around the world have witnessed similar trends toward delaying marriage and spending more years than ever shifting between higher education and settling down with a career and family.

11 Nevertheless, graduates shouldn't be deceived into thinking they can back off simply because things have become more difficult. A large number of people chasing relatively fewer opportunities can create strong competitive pressure. So, from the outset, keep your resume professional and up-to-date.

12 To reinforce this essential message, success moving through the odyssey years will come to those who don't expect to achieve their goals right away but know that they must have the strength, capacity and confidence to endure over the long term. If you're a little late with your goals, don't feel like a failure! Stay

at the vast changes as you passed through the odyssey years.

Language Points:

1 Most of us know about the phases of life which we label to parallel different age groups and life stages: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. (Para. 1)

Meaning:Most of us know about the different life stages that we describe according to different age groups: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.

2 We think of infancy before childhood and middle age before old age, with each unique phase bringing its own peculiar set of challenges. (Para. 1) Meaning: We sequence the life stages of infancy, childhood, middle age and old age according to their natural order, with each particular life stage facing its own featured challenges.

Sentence structure note:

“with+名词/代词+现在分词”作独立主格结构

“with+名词/代词+现在分词”构成独立主格结构,主要用作状语,可以表示伴随、方式、原因、时间等。

with 之后的名词和其后的现在分词构成主谓关系,其中现在分词表示主动或正在进行的动作。例如:

*She sat down at the table, with each dish emitting a delicious smell .

她在餐桌旁坐了下来,

每道菜都散发出扑鼻的香味。(状语表示伴随)

*The girl sat there quite silent with her eyes fixing on the wall.

女孩坐在那里一言不发,目

不转睛地盯着墙壁。(状语表示方式)

*With our food running out, we had to walk to a vil age for help.

由于我们的食物即将吃完,

我们不得不步行到一个村子寻求帮助。(状语表示原因)

*With summer coming, it is becoming hotter and hotter.

随着夏季来临,天气变得越来越热。(状语表示时间)

Usage note: peculiar, characteristic, unusual

peculiar, characteristic 和unusual 都可用作形容词,都含有表示“有特点的;有特色的”等意思,但有细微差别。

*1从词义上说,peculiar 着重“独特性”,强调“与众不同的”特征;characteristic常强调所指性质的典型性,也可以表示这些性质使某一事物区别于其他的事物;unusual 强调“少见的”,与通常的情况“截然不同的”或“未曾

预料的”特征。例如:

*The wine has a peculiar taste. 这种酒有种独特的味道。

*It’s characteristic of her that she never complained.

从来不发牢骚是她的个性。

*It was not unusual for me to come home at two or three in the morning. 凌晨两三点回家对

我来说是很平常的事。

2从用法上说,peculiar 通常和介词to 搭配,表示“为某人或某物所特有”;characteristic通常和介词of 搭配,表示“某物或某人有…特性、特征、特色”;unusual 通常和介词for 搭配,表示“对…不同寻常”。例如:

*Great minds in general look at life in a way peculiar to themselves. 一般来说,伟大的思想家都以自己独特的眼光来看待生活。

With the friendly and generous care so characteristic of these people, they opened their house to over 50 guests. 这些人以特有的友好和慷慨关爱,在家接待了50 多位客人。

It’s not unusual for teenagers to go through a phase when they feel ashamed of their parents, afraid that they might not live up to their friends’ standards.青少年经历为自己的父母感到羞愧的阶段是很平常的,他们生怕自己的父母达不到他们朋友所设的标准。

He asked me if there was anything unusual about the man who had robbed me, but I couldn't accurately describe the man. 他问我那个抢劫了我的男人是否有什么不寻常之处,但我不能准确地描述那个男子。

3 These challenges can be overcome by acquainting ourselves with them, such as the child’s need to learn, the adult’s need to find the right career and build a family, and the senior’s need for support and good health care. (Para. 1) Meaning:By familiarizing ourselves with the particular challenges such as the needs for different age groups: child, adult, and senior, we can surely overcome all these challenges.

Meaning beyond words:If we stay positive and optimistic, we’l successful y handle the challenges at different life stages.

4 Interestingly, ideas about the stages of life are changing. (Para. 2)

Meaning beyond words: Since the sentence states that the ideas about life stages are changing, it’s predictable that the fol owing text will focus on this topic.

5 In previous times, people didn’t have a solid idea of childhood as being separate from adulthood. A hundred years ago, no one thought of adolescence. (Para. 3)

Meaning:In the past, people didn’t have a clear concept about separating childhood from adulthood. Children were simply seen as youngsters. Likewise,

people didn’t think about the life stage of adolescence a hundred years ago.

6 Until recently it was understood as a norm that their induction to adulthood was completed as soon as they graduated from college. They would now find a sensible job which would lead to a career. (Para. 3)

Meaning: People used to consider it normal: As soon as students graduated from college,they would become part of the adult community and find a practical and reliable job toward

a career.

Meaning beyond words: Things are no longer the same as they were in the past. College graduates won’t find an ideal job right after they graduate from school. It’l take longer time before they start with their career.

Usage note: sensible, sensitive

1. sensible 表示“明智的”,如:a sensible person(一个明智的人),a sensible plan(一个切合实际的计划)。

A sensible person makes good decisions and adjustments based on reason rather than emotion.

一个明智的人会根据理智而不是情感来做出合理的决定和判断。

*sensible 还可以表示“知道的;觉察的”,be sensible of …表示“感知某事;察觉到某事”。

例如:

*I am sensible of the suffering you are undergoing. 我清楚你正在经历的痛苦。

2. sensitive 在词义上表示“敏感的;易受影响的”。例如:

*A sensitive person is easily upset by other people’s remarks or behavior.敏感的人很容易因他人的言论或行为而生气。

*You shouldn’t be so sensitive about what people say.你不应该对别人说什么如此敏感。

*sensitive to 表示“对…过敏的;对…理解的”。例如:

Unfortunately, she is sensitive to penicillin, and I doubt whether any other drug will help her.

不幸的是,她对青霉素过敏,我不能确定是否有其他药物可以帮助她。We’re trying to make people more sensitive to the difficulties faced by working mothers.

我们正在努力使人们更理解上班族妈妈所面临的困难。

7 Then during this career they would start a family, ideally before they turned 30.(Para. 3)

Meaning:While working on their career, they would get married to start their own family,preferably by age 30.

8 Today we have an equivalent need to recognize a new phase of life that comes after high school graduation, continues through college, and then leads to starting

a family and having a career, the so-called odyssey years. (Para. 4)

Meaning: Today we are also required to recognize a new life stage which starts from high school graduation through col ege till they settle down with a family and a career. This new phase might be cal ed the odyssey years, the years of self-discovery.

9 Recent trends show radical changes as young people are following a different agenda. (Para. 4)

Meaning:As young people are living a different lifestyle, the society has gone through tremendous changes.

Meaning beyond words:Young people tend to behave rebel iously, which is contrary to the traditional way and beyond the expectations of their parents.

10 They take breaks from school, live with friends and often return to living with their parents.(Para. 4)

Meaning: They stop going to school for a while, live with friends and often even return to living with their parents.

Meaning beyond words:They obviously have more freedom than the older generation.

*take a break from: rest for a short period of time when you stop doing sth.中断;暂停

She took a break from her work to make herself some coffee and then resumed a few minutes later. 她暂停了一会儿工作,给自己泡了一点咖啡,然后几分钟后继续工作。

11 Similarly, they fall in and out of love, quit one job and try another or even shift to a new career.(Para. 4)

Meaning: Likewise, they fal in and out of love, give up one job and try another, or change

to a completely different profession.

Meaning beyond words: Before they final y settle down, col ege graduates need to accumulate life experiences – to discover themselves during their odyssey years.

12 So, we need to recognize this new stage, the odyssey years, which many now consider to be an unavoidable stage in reaching adulthood. (Para. 4) Meaning:Therefore, it is necessary to recognize this unavoidable new stage, where young people explore life in order to reach adulthood.

13 People who were born prior to the 60s or 70s in the last century tended to frame their concept of adulthood based upon achieving certain accomplishments: moving away from home, becoming financially

independent, finding the right spouse and starting a family. (Para. 5) Meaning: People born before the 1960s or 1970s were likely to define the term adulthood according to certain accomplishments, such as moving away from home, having financial independence, and starting a family with a good husband or wife. *tend to do sth.: usu. do a particular thing 倾向于;往往会;易于做某事

*People tend to need less sleep as they get older. 随着年纪的增长,人们需要的睡眠会变少。

Because my car tends to overheat in the summer, I frequently have to turn on the A/C to help the engine cool down. 因为我的车往往在夏天会过热,所以我得常将空调打开,以帮助引擎冷却。

14 But that emphasis on stability did not remain static. Today, young people are unlikely to do the same. (Para. 5)

Meaning:However, stability didn’t stay the same forever since young people today are doing things differently from their parents.

Meaning beyond words:Young people today are unlikely to behave the same way as was at one time considered as the norm: moving away from home, becoming financially independent, finding the right spouse and starting a family right away after they graduate from college.

15 During the odyssey years, a high proportion of young people are delaying marriage, childbearing, and even employment. (Para. 5)

Meaning:Many young people postpone getting married, having children and taking a job during their odyssey years.

16 The odyssey years can saddle young people with enormous pressure to move forward quickly. (Para. 6)

Meaning: The odyssey years can make young people feel much stressed to move ahead quickly.

17 As the sole heir and focus of their parents’ expectations, hopes and dreams, some react with rebellious and prideful attitudes and behavior toward their parents. (Para. 6)

Meaning: Bei ng the only heir and focus of their parents’ expectations, hopes and dreams, some young people behaved rebelliously and proudly toward their parents.

18 They often resent the pressure they’re feeling and keep a distance from their parents or even run away from home. (Para. 6)

Meaning:They often feel upset about the stress they have and stay away from their parents or even secretly leave home.

19 Their confusion comes from the difficulties to make parents understand

them and the fluid journey of discovery they need in this phase of their lives. (Para. 6)

Meaning:They get confused because it’s hard to communicate with their parents and also because the journey of self-discovery they need in this particular life stage is full of uncertainty.

Meaning beyond words: In addition to the uncertainty of this newly added life stage, there is a generation gap between parents and children, which could be frustrating to young people.

20 To get away from this confusion and upset, many young people resort to computer games, iPod, iPhone, or iPad to help distract them from their pain and stress. (Para. 6)

Meaning:In order not to be bothered by this confusion and frustration and to forget about their pain and stress, many young people turn to computer games, iPods, iPhones or iPads.

Meaning beyond words:As young people can’t bear such big stress, they try to do something which will make them feel better to temporally enjoy themselves and get rid of their parents.

21 Likewise, their parents are feeling more anxious. (Para. 7)

Meaning: Their parents become more restless as well .

Meaning beyond words: As their grown children would not listen to their advice, parents are getting more worried about what direction their children may move to.

22 They may make allowances for a transition phase from student life to adult life, but they get upset when they see the transition of their grown children’s lives moving away from their expectations and stretching five years to seven years, and beyond. (Para. 7)

Meaning: Parents may accept their grown children to delay the transition period from student life to adult life, but they are frustrated when they find their children moving away from what they expected and when they extend the period to too many years.

23 The p arents don’t even detect a clear sense of direction in their children’s lives. They look at them and see the things that are being delayed. (Para. 7) Meaning:The parents even lose track of their children’s lives, so they just look at them and see how the things that should be done are being postponed.

Meaning beyond words:Parents are very worried about their grown children’s future but simply don’t know what to do to help.

24 It’s hard to predict what’s next. New guidelines haven’t been established yet, and everything seems to give way to a less permanent version of itself. (Para. 8)

Meaning: It is hard to say in advance what will happen next. Since no new social

rules or instructions have been set up yet, everything seems to be temporary or unfixed.

Usage note predict, anticipate

predict 和anticipate 都是动词,都含有“预言;预料”之意。

1 predict 表示“预言;预料”之意时,往往是根据内心感受、经验、证据或迹象;anticipate表示“预期;预料”之意时,往往根据以往的经验、自己的向往、设想来推测。例如:

In fact, no one can predict whether his idea will end up with a great success for our business.

事实上,没人能预测他的想法是否最终会使我们的业务取得成功。

*I anticipate a lot of interest in my newspaper advertisement. 我预料我在报纸上登的广告会引起人们很大的兴趣。

*I predict this year’s drought to have a detrimental effect.

我预测今年的干旱有不利的影响。

2. predict 是及物动词,后可接名词词组或名词从句作宾语,后接动词不定式时常用于被动结构。例如:

*Unemployment is predicted to increase to 700,000 by the end of the year.

预计失业人口到今年年底将增至70 万。

Professor Murray, who creates a graph of their conversations, believes it could eventually be used to predict the likelihood of divorce. 默里教授根据他们的对话画出一幅曲线图, 他相信这条曲线最终可以用来预测夫妻离婚的可能性。Forecasters will be able to predict where the expected storm surges will strike and how big they will be. 预报员们将可预报风暴潮袭击的地点及其规模。anticipate 是及物动词, 一般接名词、动名词或名词从句作宾语, 可用于被动结构;anticipate 后不能跟动词不定式。例如:

A good manufacturer must try to anticipate what his customers wil want and decide what shall be produced.一位优秀的制造商必须努力预料顾客需要什么,然后决定生产什么。

It is far better for us to anticipate the worst and get out of it before it hinders the progress.

我们最好能事先预料到最坏的情况,并在它阻碍进程之前摆脱它。

25 There’s been a shift in the status and balance of power between the genders, too.More women are getting degrees than men. (Para. 8)

Meaning:There’s also been a change in the social status and power between male and female. Now more women are getting degrees than men.

26 Male wages have remained stable over the past decades, while female wages have boomed. (Para. 8)

Meaning:Male wages have remained steady over the past decades; in contrast, female wages have been on the increase.

27 Apart from anything else, this has had an implicit effect on courtship. Educated

women can get many of the things they want, such as security, accomplishment,

and identity without marriage. (Para. 9)

Meaning:In addition to anything else, the delay has affected romantic relationships in a subtle way. Unmarried but educated women can stil have many of the things that they want, such as security, accomplishment and identity. Meaning beyond words: In terms of romantic relationships, educated women can always get more advantages than men.

28 However, both genders are having a harder time finding suitable mates to build their lives with.(Para. 9)

Meaning:However, it has become difficult for both males and females to find their appropriate partners whom they can build their future with.

Meaning beyond words: The difficulty for both genders to find a suitable spouse is caused by the transition phase.

29 Considering all of this, it’s beneficial to know that even if graduates are delaying many things after college, surveys show they still hold highly traditional aspirations. (Para. 9)

Meaning:When thinking about all of this, it’s good to know that even if graduates are delaying many things after col ege, surveys show they stil keep highly traditional desires and goals.

30 For example, this contemporary generation rates parenthood even more highly than previous generations did! (Para. 9)

Meaning:Young people, for instance, think of parenting more important than previous generations did.

Meaning beyond words:Young people think that the quality of their own parents’parenting was inadequate and their own parenting should be of a higher quality.

31 This new phase will likely grow more pronounced in the coming years. (Para. 10)

Meaning: This new phase in the development of young people will continue to spread and gain easier recognition in the near future.

32 Nations around the world have witnessed similar trends toward delaying marriage and spending more years than ever shifting between higher education and settling down with a career and family. (Para. 10)

Meaning: The whole world has noticed a similar tendency – grown children delay marriage and spend more years than generations before them, wandering at higher

education and settling down with a career and family.

33 Nevertheless, graduates shouldn’t be deceived into thinking they can back off simply because things have become more difficult. (Para. 11)

Meaning:However, graduates shouldn’t get the wrong assumption that they can give up because things have become harder.

Usage note: deceive, cheat

1 deceive 作及物动词用,表示“欺骗;蒙骗;行骗”,指用虚假、哄骗、隐瞒等手段以假乱真,使人产生误解或错觉而相信假的东西, 上当受骗。例如:Honeyed words may deceive people for some time, but they cannot stand the test of time and practice.花言巧语蒙骗人于一时, 但是却经不起时间和实践的检验。Advertisers are now forbidden to deceive customers with false claims.

现在已禁止广告商用不实之词来欺骗消费者。

cheat 作及物动词用时,表示“欺骗;骗取”,常指用不公平的手段、不诚实的方法骗取某物。

例如:The greedy shopkeeper often cheats customers by sel ing fake goods.

这个黑心的老板经

常出售假冒伪劣商品欺骗客户。

cheat 作不及物动词用时,表示“作弊”。

*He cheated on (in) the examination. 他考试作弊。

2. deceive 的施动者为enemy, rival, agent 等, 受动者常为受骗的对象如firm, purchaser,shopper 等, 常用搭配为deceive sb. into doing sth., 介词into 的宾语常为believing,thinking, buying, selling 等。例如:

*He deceived the shopkeeper into purchasing a large quantity of fake commodities 他骗店主采购了大量的假冒伪劣商品。

cheat 表示“骗取”时,其宾语一般是人。常用搭配为cheat sb. (out) of sth.,介词of 后常接fortune, wealth, achievement, success 等。例如:

*He cheated me (out) of my watch. 他骗走了我的手表。

34 A large number of people chasing relatively fewer opportunities can create strong competitive pressure. (Para.11)

Meaning:A large number of people competing for fewer jobs can put a lot of stress on young people.

35 So, from the outset, keep your resume professional and up-to-date. (Para.

11)

Meaning:Therefore, from the very beginning, you need to keep your r閟um?well-written, and you must often revise it as necessary.

36 To reinforce this essential message, success moving through the odyssey years will come to those who don’t expect to achieve their goals right away but know that they must have the strength, capacity and confidence to endure

over the long term.

(Para. 12)

Meaning: Success only belongs to those young people who are not too anxious about their immediate achievements and who have long-term goals and fine qualities such as strength, capacity and confidence in order to sustain through the long odyssey years.

37 Stay strong, be positive, and keep focused! Someday you will look back and wonder at the vast changes as you passed through the odyssey years. (Para. 12)

Meaning: Remain strong, be positive, and keep focused on your goals. Someday when you look back you would feel surprised at what you have achieved through the odyssey years.

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